Books  Sustainable Development  Science & Technology  Biotechnology & the Environment 

Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts

By: Virendra S Bisaria (Editor), Akihiko Kondo (Editor)

584 pages, colour & b/w illustrations

John Wiley & Sons

Hardback | Jun 2014 | #217119 | ISBN-13: 9781118175835
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £93.50 $119/€110 approx

About this book

Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts provides the vision of a successful biorefinery – the lignocelluloic biomass needs to be efficiently converted to its constituent monomers, comprising mainly of sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose and arabinose. Accordingly, the first part of the book deals with aspects crucial for the pretreatment and hydrolysis of biomass to give sugars in high yield, as well as the general aspects of bioprocessing technologies which will enable the development of biorefineries through inputs of metabolic engineering, fermentation, downstream processing and formulation.

The second part of Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts gives the current status and future directions of the biological processes for production of ethanol (a biofuel as well as an important commodity raw material), solvents (butanol, isobutanol, butanediols, propanediols), organic acids (lactic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid), and amino acid (glutamic acid). The commercial production of some of these commodity bioproducts in the near future will have a far reaching effect in realizing our goal of sustainable conversion of these renewable resources and realizing the concept of biorefinery.

Suitable for researchers, practitioners, graduate students and consultants in biochemical/ bioprocess engineering, industrial microbiology, bioprocess technology, metabolic engineering, environmental science and energy, Bioprocessing of Renewable Resources to Commodity Bioproducts offers:
- Exemplifies the application of metabolic engineering approaches for development of microbial cell factories
- Provides a unique perspective to the industry about the scientific problems and their possible solutions in making a bioprocess work for commercial production of commodity bioproducts
- Discusses the processing of renewable resources, such as plant biomass, for mass production of commodity chemicals and liquid fuels to meet our ever- increasing demands
- Encourages sustainable green technologies for the utilization of renewable resources
- Offers timely solutions to help address the energy problem as non-renewable fossil oil will soon be unavailable


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Preface xv
Contributors xix

PART I ENABLING PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES
1 Biorefineries – Concepts for Sustainability 3
2 Biomass Logistics 29
3 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials 43
4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 77
5 Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes 105

PART II SPECIFIC COMMODITY BIOPRODUCTS
6 Bioprocessing Technologies 133
7 Ethanol from Bacteria 169
8 Ethanol Production from Yeasts 201
9 Fermentative Biobutanol Production: An Old Topic with Remarkable Recent Advances 227
10 Bio-based Butanediols Production: The Contributions of Catalysis, Metabolic Engineering, and Synthetic Biology 261
11 1,3-Propanediol 289
12 Isobutanol 327
13 Lactic Acid 353
14 Microbial Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid From Renewable Sources: A Green Approach as an Alternative to Conventional Chemistry 381
15 Fumaric Acid Biosynthesis and Accumulation 409
16 Succinic Acid 435
17 Glutamic Acid 473
18 Recent Advances for Microbial Production of Xylitol 497
19 First and Second Generation Production of Bio-Adipic Acid 519

References 538
Index 541


Detailed table of contents:

PREFACE xv

CONTRIBUTORS xix

PART I ENABLING PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

1 Biorefineries—Concepts for Sustainability 3
Michael Sauer, Matthias Steiger, Diethard Mattanovich, and Hans Marx

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Three Levels for Biomass Use 5

1.3 The Sustainable Removal of Biomass from the Field is Crucial for a Successful Biorefinery 7

1.4 Making Order: Classification of Biorefineries 8

1.5 Quantities of Sustainably Available Biomass 10

1.6 Quantification of Sustainability 11

1.7 Starch- and Sugar-Based Biorefinery 12

1.7.1 Sugar Crop Raffination 14

1.7.2 Starch Crop Raffination 14

1.8 Oilseed Crops 14

1.9 Lignocellulosic Feedstock 16

1.9.1 Biochemical Biorefinery (Fractionation Biorefinery) 16

1.9.2 Syngas Biorefinery (Gasification Biorefinery) 18

1.10 Green Biorefinery 19

1.11 Microalgae 20

1.12 Future Prospects—Aiming for Higher Value from Biomass 21

References 24

2 Biomass Logistics 29
Kevin L. Kenney, J. Richard Hess, Nathan A. Stevens, William A. Smith, Ian J. Bonner, and David J. Muth

2.1 Introduction 30

2.2 Method of Assessing Uncertainty, Sensitivity, and Influence of Feedstock Logistic System Parameters 31

2.2.1 Analysis Step 1—Defining the Model System 31

2.2.2 Analysis Step 2—Defining Input Parameter Probability Distributions 31

2.2.3 Analysis Step 3—Perform Deterministic Computations 32

2.2.4 Analysis Step 4—Deciphering the Results 34

2.3 Understanding Uncertainty in the Context of Feedstock Logistics 36

2.3.1 Increasing Biomass Collection Efficiency by Responding to In-Field Variability 36

2.3.2 Minimizing Storage Losses by Addressing Moisture Variability 38

2.4 Future Prospects 40

2.5 Financial Disclosure/Acknowledgments 40

References 41

3 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Materials 43
Karthik Rajendran and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

3.1 Introduction 44

3.2 Complexity of Lignocelluloses 45

3.2.1 Anatomy of Lignocellulosic Biomass 45

3.2.2 Proteins Present in the Plant Cell Wall 46

3.2.3 Presence of Lignin in the Cell Wall of Plants 47

3.2.4 Polymeric Interaction in the Plant Cell Wall 48

3.2.5 Lignocellulosic Biomass Recalcitrance 49

3.3 Challenges in Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses 52

3.4 Pretreatment Methods and Mechanisms 53

3.4.1 Physical Pretreatment Methods 53

3.4.2 Chemical and Physicochemical Methods 56

3.4.3 Biological Methods 61

3.5 Economic Outlook 64

3.6 Future Prospects 67

References 68

4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 77
Jonathan J. Stickel, Roman Brunecky, Richard T. Elander, and James D. McMillan

4.1 Introduction 78

4.2 Cellulase, Hemicellulase, and Accessory Enzyme Systems and Their Synergistic Action on Lignocellulosic Biomass 79

4.2.1 Biomass Recalcitrance 79

4.2.2 Cellulases 80

4.2.3 Hemicellulases 81

4.2.4 Accessory Enzymes 81

4.2.5 Synergy with Xylan Removal and Cellulases 82

4.3 Enzymatic Hydrolysis at High Concentrations of Biomass Solids 83

4.3.1 Conversion Yield Calculations 84

4.3.2 Product Inhibition of Enzymes 85

4.3.3 Slurry Transport and Mixing 86

4.3.4 Heat and Mass Transport 87

4.4 Mechanistic Process Modeling and Simulation 88

4.5 Considerations for Process Integration and Economic Viability 91

4.5.1 Feedstock 91

4.5.2 Pretreatment 92

4.5.3 Downstream Conversion 94

4.6 Economic Outlook 95

4.7 Future Prospects 96

Acknowledgments 97

References 97

5 Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes 105
Ranjita Biswas, Abhishek Persad, and Virendra S. Bisaria

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Hydrolytic Enzymes for Digestion of Lignocelluloses 107

5.2.1 Cellulases 107

5.2.2 Xylanases 108

5.3 Desirable Attributes of Cellulase for Hydrolysis of Cellulose 109

5.4 Strategies Used for Enhanced Enzyme Production 110

5.4.1 Genetic Methods 110

5.4.2 Process Methods 114

5.5 Economic Outlook 123

5.6 Future Prospects 123

References 124

6 Bioprocessing Technologies 133
Gopal Chotani, Caroline Peres, Alexandra Schuler, and Peyman Moslemy

6.1 Introduction 134

6.2 Cell Factory Platform 136

6.2.1 Properties of a Biocatalyst 137

6.2.2 Recent Trends in Cell Factory Construction for Bioprocessing 140

6.3 Fermentation Process 142

6.4 Recovery Process 147

6.4.1 Active Dry Yeast 148

6.4.2 Unclarified Enzyme Product 149

6.4.3 Clarified Enzyme Product 150

6.4.4 BioisopreneTM 151

6.5 Formulation Process 153

6.5.1 Solid Forms 154

6.5.2 Slurry or Paste Forms 159

6.5.3 Liquid Forms 160

6.6 Final Product Blends 161

6.7 Economic Outlook and Future Prospects 162

Acknowledgment 163

Nomenclature 163

References 163

PART II SPECIFIC COMMODITY BIOPRODUCTS

7 Ethanol from Bacteria 169
Hideshi Yanase

7.1 Introduction 170

7.2 Heteroethanologenic Bacteria 172

7.2.1 Escherichia coli 173

7.2.2 Klebsiella oxytoca 177

7.2.3 Erwinia spp. and Enterobacter asburiae 178

7.2.4 Corynebacterium glutamicum 179

7.2.5 Thermophilic Bacteria 180

7.3 Homoethanologenic Bacteria 183

7.3.1 Zymomonas mobilis 184

7.3.2 Zymobacter palmae 189

7.4 Economic Outlook 191

7.5 Future Prospects 192

References 193

8 Ethanol Production from Yeasts 201
Tomohisa Hasunuma, Ryosuke Yamada, and Akihiko Kondo

8.1 Introduction 202

8.2 Ethanol Production from Starchy Biomass 205

8.2.1 Starch Utilization Process 205

8.2.2 Yeast Cell–Surface Engineering System for Biomass Utilization 205

8.2.3 Ethanol Production from Starchy Biomass Using Amylase-Expressing Yeast 206

8.3 Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass 208

8.3.1 Lignocellulose Utilization Process 208

8.3.2 Fermentation of Cellulosic Materials 209

8.3.3 Fermentation of Hemicellulosic Materials 215

8.3.4 Ethanol Production in the Presence of Fermentation Inhibitors 217

8.4 Economic Outlook 218

8.5 Future Prospects 220

References 220

9 Fermentative Biobutanol Production: An Old Topic with Remarkable Recent Advances 227
Yi Wang, Holger Janssen and Hans P. Blaschek

9.1 Introduction 228

9.2 Butanol as a Fuel and Chemical Feedstock 229

9.3 History of ABE Fermentation 230

9.4 Physiology of Clostridial ABE Fermentation 232

9.4.1 The Clostridial Cell Cycle 232

9.4.2 Physiology and Enzymes of the Central Metabolic Pathway 233

9.5 Abe Fermentation Processes, Butanol Toxicity, and Product Recovery 236

9.5.1 ABE Fermentation Processes 236

9.5.2 Butanol Toxicity and Butanol-Tolerant Strains 237

9.5.3 Fermentation Products Recovery 238

9.6 Metabolic Engineering and “Omics”—Analyses of Solventogenic Clostridia 239

9.6.1 Development and Application of Metabolic Engineering Techniques 239

9.6.2 Butanol Production by Engineered Microbes 242

9.6.3 Global Insights into Solventogenic Metabolism Based on “Transcriptomics” and “Proteomics” 245

9.7 Economic Outlook 246

9.8 Current Status and Future Prospects 247

References 251

10 Bio-based Butanediols Production: The Contributions of Catalysis, Metabolic Engineering, and Synthetic Biology 261
Xiao-Jun Ji and He Huang

10.1 Introduction 262

10.2 Bio-Based 2,3-Butanediol 264

10.2.1 Via Catalytic Hydrogenolysis 264

10.2.2 Via Sugar Fermentation 265

10.3 Bio-Based 1,4-Butanediol 276

10.3.1 Via Catalytic Hydrogenation 276

10.3.2 Via Sugar Fermentation 277

10.4 Economic Outlook 279

10.5 Future Prospects 280

Acknowledgments 280

References 280

11 1,3-Propanediol 289
Yaqin Sun, Chengwei Ma, Hongxin Fu, Ying Mu, and Zhilong Xiu

11.1 Introduction 290

11.2 Bioconversion of Glucose into 1,3-Propanediol 291

11.3 Bioconversion of Glycerol into 1,3-Propanediol 292

11.3.1 Strains 292

11.3.2 Fermentation 293

11.3.3 Bioprocess Optimization and Control 301

11.4 Metabolic Engineering 302

11.4.1 Stoichiometric Analysis/MFA 302

11.4.2 Pathway Engineering 304

11.5 Down-Processing of 1,3-Propanediol 308

11.6 Integrated Processes 311

11.6.1 Biodiesel and 1,3-Propanediol 311

11.6.2 Glycerol and 1,3-Propanediol 313

11.6.3 1,3-Propanediol and Biogas 314

11.7 Economic Outlook 314

11.8 Future Prospects 315

Acknowledgments 316

A List of Abbreviations 316

References 317

12 Isobutanol 327
Bernhard J. Eikmanns and Bastian Blombach

12.1 Introduction 328

12.2 The Access Code for the Microbial Production of Branched-Chain Alcohols: 2-Ketoacid Decarboxylase and an Alcohol Dehydrogenase 329

12.3 Metabolic Engineering Strategies for Directed Production of Isobutanol 331

12.3.1 Isobutanol Production with Escherichia coli 331

12.3.2 Isobutanol Production with Corynebacterium glutamicum 335

12.3.3 Isobutanol Production with Bacillus subtilis 337

12.3.4 Isobutanol Production with Clostridium cellulolyticum 339

12.3.5 Isobutanol Production with Ralstonia eutropha 339

12.3.6 Isobutanol Production with Synechococcus elongatus 340

12.3.7 Isobutanol Production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 341

12.4 Overcoming Isobutanol Cytotoxicity 341

12.5 Process Development for the Production of Isobutanol 343

12.6 Economic Outlook 345

12.7 Future Prospects 346

Abbreviations 347

Nomenclature 347

References 349

13 Lactic Acid 353
Kenji Okano, Tsutomu Tanaka, and Akihiko Kondo

13.1 History of Lactic Acid 354

13.2 Applications of Lactic Acid 354

13.3 Poly Lactic Acid 354

13.4 Conventional Lactic Acid Production 356

13.5 Lactic Acid Production From Renewable Resources 357

13.5.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria 359

13.5.2 Escherichia coli 364

13.5.3 Corynebacterium glutamicum 368

13.5.4 Yeasts 370

13.6 Economic Outlook 373

13.7 Future Prospects 374

Nomenclature 374

References 375

14 Microbial Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid From Renewable Sources: A Green Approach as an Alternative to Conventional Chemistry 381
Vinod Kumar, Somasundar Ashok, and Sunghoon Park

14.1 Introduction 382

14.2 Natural Microbial Production of 3-HP 383

14.3 Production of 3-HP from Glucose by Recombinant Microorganisms 385

14.4 Production of 3-HP from Glycerol by Recombinant Microorganisms 388

14.4.1 Glycerol Metabolism for the Production of 3-HP and Cell Growth 389

14.4.2 Synthesis of 3-HP from Glycerol Through the CoA-Dependent Pathway 390

14.4.3 Synthesis of 3-HP From Glycerol Through the CoA-Independent Pathway 392

14.4.4 Coproduction of 3-HP and PDO From Glycerol 394

14.5 Major Challenges for Microbial Production of 3-HP 396

14.5.1 Toxicity and Tolerance 396

14.5.2 Redox Balance and By-products Formation 399

14.5.3 Vitamin B12 Supply 400

14.6 Economic Outlook 400

14.7 Future Prospects 401

Acknowledgment 401

List of Abbreviations 402

References 402

15 Fumaric Acid Biosynthesis and Accumulation 409
Israel Goldberg and J. Stefan Rokem

15.1 Introduction 410

15.1.1 Uses 410

15.1.2 Production 411

15.2 Microbial Synthesis of Fumaric Acid 412

15.2.1 Producer Organisms 412

15.2.2 Carbon Sources 414

15.2.3 Solid-State Fermentations 414

15.2.4 Submerged Fermentation Conditions 415

15.2.5 Transport of Fumaric Acid 416

15.2.6 Production Processes 416

15.3 A Plausible Biochemical Mechanism for Fumaric Acid Biosynthesis and Accumulation in Rhizopus 417

15.3.1 How Can the High Molar Yield of Fumaric Acid be Explained? 417

15.3.2 Where in the Cell is the Localization of the Reductive Reactions of the TCA Cycle? 418

15.3.3 What is the Role of Cytosolic Fumarase in Fumaric Acid Accumulation in Rhizopus Strain? 419

15.4 Toward Engineering Rhizopus for Fumaric Acid Production 422

15.5 Economic Outlook 424

15.6 Future Perspectives 427

15.6.1 Biorefinery 427

15.6.2 Platform Microorganisms 427

Acknowledgment 429

References 430

16 Succinic Acid 435
Boris Litsanov, Melanie Brocker, Marco Oldiges, and Michael Bott

16.1 Succinate as an Important Platform Chemical for a Sustainable Bio-Based Chemistry 436

16.2 Microorganisms for Bio-Succinate Production—Physiology, Metabolic Routes, and Strain Development 437

16.2.1 Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens 443

16.2.2 Family Pasteurellaceae 444

16.2.3 Escherichia coli 448

16.2.4 Corynebacterium glutamicum 451

16.2.5 Yeast-Based Producers 454

16.3 Neutral Versus Acidic Conditions for Product Formation 455

16.4 Downstream Processing 456

16.5 Companies Involved in Bio-Succinic Acid Manufacturing 458

16.5.1 Bioamber Inc. 459

16.5.2 Myriant Technologies LLC 459

16.5.3 Reverdia 462

16.5.4 Succinity GmbH 462

16.6 Future Prospects and Economic Outlook 462

References 463

17 Glutamic Acid 473
Takashi Hirasawa and Hiroshi Shimizu

17.1 Introduction 474

17.2 Glutamic Acid Production by Corynebacterium Glutamicum 475

17.2.1 Glutamic Acid Production by Corynebacterium Glutamicum and Its Molecular Mechanism 475

17.2.2 Metabolic Engineering of Glutamic Acid Production by Corynebacterium Glutamicum 478

17.3 Glutamic Acid as a Building Block 481

17.3.1 Production of Chemicals from Glutamic Acid Using Microorganisms 481

17.3.2 Production of Other Chemicals from Glutamic Acid 487

17.4 Economic Outlook 487

17.5 Future Prospects 489

List of Abbreviations 489

References 489

18 Recent Advances for Microbial Production of Xylitol 497
Yong-Cheol Park, Sun-Ki Kim, and Jin-Ho Seo

18.1 Introduction 498

18.2 General Principles for Biological Production of Xylitol 498

18.3 Microbial Production of Xylitol 501

18.3.1 Carbon Sources 501

18.3.2 Aeration 501

18.3.3 Optimization of Fermentation Strategies 503

18.4 Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Microorganisms 508

18.4.1 Construction of Xylitol-Producing Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 508

18.4.2 Cofactor Engineering for Xylitol Production in Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 510

18.4.3 Other Recombinant Microorganisms for Xylitol Production 512

18.5 Economic Outlook 514

18.6 Future Prospects 515

Acknowledgments 515

Nomenclature 515

References 516

19 First and Second Generation Production of Bio-Adipic Acid 519
Jozef Bernhard Johann Henry van Duuren and Christoph Wittmann

19.1 Introduction 520

19.2 Production of Bio-Adipic Acid 523

19.2.1 Natural Formation by Microorganisms 523

19.2.2 First Generation Bio-Adipic Acid 524

19.2.3 Second Generation Bio-Adipic Acid 528

19.3 Ecological Footprint of Bio-Adipic Acid 530

19.4 Economic Outlook 535

19.5 Future Prospects 536

References 538

INDEX 541

 


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Biography

Virendra S. Bisaria is Professor in the Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. He has published more than 100 original papers, 10 reviews and 15 book chapters. He is Editor of the Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Elsevier) and is on the editorial boards of Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (Wiley) and Process Biochemistry (Elsevier). He was one of the International collaborators to recommend assay procedures for cellulase and xylanase activities on behalf of Commission on Biotechnology, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. His awards include the Research Exchange Award from the Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and fellowships from UNESCO and UNDP etc. He is Vice President of Asian Federation of Biotechnology from India.

Akihiko Kondo is Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Director of Biorefinery Center at Kobe University, Kobe, Japan. He is Team Leader, Biomass Engineering Program, RIKEN. He has published more than 330 original papers, 75 reviews and 55 book chapters. He is Editor of Journal of Biotechnology (Elsevier), Associate Editor of Biochemical Engineering Journal (Elsevier) and is on the editorial boards of Biotechnology for Biofuels (Springer), Bioresource Technology (Elsevier), Journal of Biological Engineering (Springer) and FEMS Yeast Research (Wiley). He has won numerous awards which include the Advanced Technology Award by Fuji Sankei Business and Takeda International Contributions Award by Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

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