Books  Environmental Science  Environmental Science: General 

Physical and Chemical Processes in the Aquatic Environment

By: Erik R Christensen (Author), An Li (Author)

440 pages, colour plates, b/w illustrations, tables

John Wiley & Sons

Hardback | Sep 2013 | #219076 | ISBN-13: 9781118111765
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £73.50 $94/€88 approx

About this book

Compared with other books on the topic of fresh waters, Physical and Chemical Processes in the Aquatic Environment has a unique outline in that it follows pollution from sources to impact. Included in the text is the treatment of various tracers, ranging from pathogens to stable isotopes of elements and providing a comprehensive discussion which is lacking in many other books on pollution control of natural waters.

Geophysical processes are discussed emphasizing mixing of water, interaction between water and the atmosphere, and sedimentation processes. Important geochemistry processes occurring in natural waters are described as are the processes specific to nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, and pathogens in subsequent chapters. Each of these chapters includes an introduction on the selected groups, followed by the physicochemical properties which are the most relevant to their behavior in natural waters, and the theories and models to describe their speciation, transport and transformation.

Physical and Chemical Processes in the Aquatic Environment also includes the most up to date information including a discussion on emerging pollutants such as brominated and phosphate flame retardants, perflurochemicals, and pharmaceutical and personal care products. Due to its importance an ecotoxicology chapter has been included featuring molecular biological methods, nanoparticles, and comparison of the basis of biotic ligand model with the Weibull dose–response model. Finally, the last chapter briefly summarizes the regulations on ambient water quality.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Preface xi
1 Transport of pollutants 1
2 Sedimentation processes 28
3 Atmospheric interactions 65
4 Water chemistry 113
5 Nutrients 138
6 Metals 185
7 Organic pollutants 220
8 Pathogens 268
9 Tracers 298
10 Ecotoxicology 347
11 Ambient water quality criteria 389

APPENDIX 11 A Footnote for Table 11.1, 405
APPENDIX 11 B Footnote for Table 11.2, 408
APPENDIX 11 C Additional Notes, 410
References, 412
Index 415


Detailed table of contents:

Preface xi

1 TRANSPORT OF POLLUTANTS 1
1.1 Introduction, 1
1.2 Advection–Diffusion Equation with Reaction, 2
1.3 Steady-State Mixing in Estuaries, 4
1.3.1 Determination of Diffusivity D from Salinity Measurements, 5
1.3.2 Pollutant Prediction for an Estuary with Uniform Discharge, 5
1.3.3 Salinity in an Infinite Estuary with a Large Freshwater Discharge, 8
1.3.4 Conservative Pollutant Prediction for an Infinite Estuary with a Large Freshwater Discharge, 9
1.4 Time-Dependent Mixing in Rivers and Soil Systems, 10
1.5 Vertical Mixing, 14
1.5.1 The Radon Method, 16
1.5.2 The Tritium–helium-3 Method, 17
1.5.3 Evaluation of Mixing Based on Density Gradients, 19
1.6 Hydrodynamic Models, 20
1.7 Groundwater Plumes, 22
1.8 Sediment Mixing, 23
References, 25

2 SEDIMENTATION PROCESSES 28
2.1 Introduction, 28
2.2 210Pb Dating of Sediments, 29
2.2.1 Measurement of 210Pb Activity, 30
2.2.2 210Pb Activity Profiles, 33
2.3 137Cs and 239+240Pu Dating of Sediments, 38
2.4 Dated Records of Metals and Organic Pollutants, 42
2.5 Deconvolution of Sedimentary Records, 49
2.6 Chemical and Biological Degradation, 55
2.7 Sediments as a Source of Pollutants, 56
2.7.1 Phosphorus, 57
2.7.2 Metals, 57
2.7.3 Acid-volatile Sulfides, 58
2.7.4 Organics, 59
References, 60

3 ATMOSPHERIC INTERACTIONS 65
3.1 Introduction, 65
3.2 Atmospheric Deposition Processes, 66
3.2.1 Gaseous vs. Particulate Chemicals in the Atmosphere, 66
3.2.2 Dry Deposition with Aerosols, 68
3.2.3 Wet Deposition, 75
3.2.4 Gas Exchange, 78
3.3 Deposition and Gas Exchange of Organic Contaminants, 84
3.4 Marine and Freshwater Microlayers, 87
3.5 Case Study: Emission of VOCs from Wastewater Treatment Plants, 89
3.6 The Fugacity Model, 93
3.6.1 Fugacity Definitions and Basic Equations, 94
3.6.2 Levels of Complexity, 101
3.6.3 Example Calculations – Chlorobenzene, 103
References, 108

4 WATER CHEMISTRY 113
4.1 Introduction, 113
4.2 Carbonate and Alkalinity, 115
4.2.1 Dissolved CO2 and Carbonate Speciation in Water, 115
4.2.2 Solving Equilibrium pH, 117
4.2.3 Alkalinity, 120
4.2.4 Buffer Index, 124
4.3 Sulfur Chemistry, 127
4.3.1 Sulfur Redox Reactions in Water, 128
4.3.2 Sulfur in Sediment, 132
4.3.3 Acid Rain, 133
4.4 Impact of Global Warming on Natural Waters, 135
References, 136

5 NUTRIENTS 138
5.1 Introduction, 138
5.2 Input of Nutrients and Acidity, 140
5.3 Eutrophication, 143
5.3.1 Eutrophication Control, 148
5.3.2 Harmful Algal Blooms, 149
5.3.3 Cladophora, 155
5.4 Nitrogen, 156
5.4.1 The Nitrogen Cycle, 156
5.4.2 Nitrification and Denitrification, 159
5.4.3 N Removal, 166
5.5 Phosphorus, 169
5.5.1 The Phosphorus Cycle, 169
5.5.2 P Removal, 170
5.5.3 Case Study: Phosphorus from Wastewater Treatment, Stormwater, and Rivers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 172
5.6 Vitamins and Trace Metals, 173
References, 180

6 METALS 185
6.1 Introduction, 185
6.2 Trends, Measurement, and Toxicity, 186
6.3 Major Sources and Reactions of Metals in Water, 193
6.3.1 Atmospheric Deposition of Metals, 193
6.3.2 Hydration, Hydrolysis, and Complex Formation, 196
6.3.3 Dissolution of Metals from Minerals, 201
6.4 Behavior of Selected Metals in Water, 203
6.4.1 Mercury, 203
6.4.2 Zinc and Cadmium, 204
6.4.3 Arsenic, 207
6.5 Zero-Valent Iron in Remediation of Contaminated Water, 209
6.5.1 Dechlorination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, 209
6.5.2 Reduction of Uranium Carbonate, Chromate, and Arsenate, 214
References, 215

7 ORGANIC POLLUTANTS 220
7.1 Introduction, 220
7.2 Important Organic Pollutant Groups, 221
7.2.1 Petrochemicals and Industrial Solvents, 221
7.2.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), 223
7.2.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), 223
7.2.4 Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs), 226
7.2.5 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and other Flame Retardants, 226
7.2.6 Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), 232
7.2.7 Other Pesticides, 236
7.2.8 Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs), 239
7.2.9 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and other Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), 240
7.3 Descriptors of Organic Molecules, 243
7.4 Basic Physicochemical Properties, 245
7.4.1 Vapor Pressure, 246
7.4.2 Aqueous Solubility, 247
7.4.3 Henry’s Law Constant, 248
7.4.4 Octanol–Water Partition Coefficient, 248
7.4.5 Air–Octanol Partition Coefficient, 249
7.5 Distribution of Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Environment, 249
7.5.1 Air–Water, 250
7.5.2 Water–Sediment, 250
7.5.3 Water–Biota and Sediment–Biota, 251
7.6 Transformations in Water, 252
7.6.1 Hydrolysis, 253
7.6.2 Photochemical Degradation, 255
7.6.3 Biological Degradation, 257
7.6.4 Case Study: Transformation of PBDEs in the Environment, 259
References, 261

8 PATHOGENS 268
8.1 Introduction, 268
8.2 Bacteria, 271
8.3 Protozoa, 272
8.3.1 Cryptosporidium, 273
8.4 Molecular Techniques for Detection of Pathogens, 276
8.4.1 Water, 276
8.4.2 Biosolids, 277
8.5 Pathogen Indicator Organisms and Surrogates, 277
8.5.1 Bacillus subtilis, 280
8.5.2 E. coli and Fecal Coliforms, 280
8.6 Bacterial Contamination of Recreational Waters, 281
8.6.1 Modeling, 283
8.6.2 Beaches, 286
8.6.3 Recreational Pools, 287
8.7 Pathogen Removal in Water and Wastewater Treatment, 288
8.7.1 Water, 288
8.7.2 Wastewater and Solid Waste, 289
8.7.3 Inactivation Kinetics, 290
References, 295

9 TRACERS 298
9.1 Introduction, 298
9.2 Natural vs. Artificial Tracers, 299
9.3 Radioisotopes, 300
9.4 Stable Isotopes, 301
9.5 Applications of Tracer Technology, 305
9.5.1 Stable Isotope Tracers, 305
9.5.2 N and O Stable Isotopic Compositions of Nitrate Sources, 309
9.5.3 Other Physical and Chemical Tracers, 310
9.5.4 Molecular-Based Biological Tracers, 314
9.6 Chemical Mass Balance Modeling, 315
9.6.1 CMB Model for PAHs in Kinnickinnic River, Wisconsin, 316
9.7 Factor Analysis, 320
9.7.1 Non-negative Constraints Matrix Factorization, 322
9.7.2 Positive Matrix Factorization, 331
9.7.3 Unmix, 335
References, 341

10 ECOTOXICOLOGY 347
10.1 Introduction, 347
10.2 Bioassays, 349
10.2.1 Fish, 350
10.2.2 Algae, 350
10.2.3 Daphnia, 351
10.3 Molecular Biology Tools, 353
10.3.1 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), 353
10.3.2 Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH), 354
10.3.3 Gene Expression, 354
10.3.4 Biomarkers, 355
10.4 Human Health, 357
10.4.1 Fisheries Advisories, 357
10.4.2 Mercury, 358
10.4.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), 358
10.5 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, 359
10.6 Types of Toxicity, 360
10.6.1 Disinfection Byproducts, 361
10.6.2 Detoxification and Degradation, 361
10.6.3 Antibiotics, 362
10.6.4 Nanomaterials, 363
10.7 Models and Toxicity Tests, 364
10.7.1 Dose–Response Models for Single Toxicants, 364
10.7.2 Dose–Response Models for Multiple Toxicants, 369
10.7.3 Pulsed Toxicity Tests, 374
10.7.4 Chronic Toxicity Tests, 375
10.8 Quality Criteria, 376
10.8.1 Sediment Quality Criteria, 376
10.8.2 Water Quality Criteria, 381
10.8.3 Total Maximum Daily Loads, 381
References, 383

11 AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA 389
11.1 Introduction, 389
11.2 A Primer on Ambient Water Quality Regulations, 390
11.3 Current US Water Quality Criteria, 391
11.3.1 Aquatic Life Criteria, 402
11.3.2 Human Health Criteria, 403
11.3.3 Organoleptic Effects, 404
11.4 Water Quality Databases, 404

APPENDIX 11.A Footnote for Table 11.1, 405
APPENDIX 11.B Footnote for Table 11.2, 408
APPENDIX 11.C Additional Notes, 410
References, 412
Index 415


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