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Dendrobium of Borneo

Identification KeyMonograph

By: Jeffrey J Wood (Author)

946 pages, 1199 colour photos and colour & b/w illustrations

Natural History Publications Borneo

Hardback | Oct 2014 | #219375 | ISBN-13: 9789838121538
Availability: In stock
NHBS Price: £272.00 $343/€323 approx

About this book

Dendrobium, with approximately 1 450 species, is one of the most diverse genera in the orchid family and the second biggest orchid genus in Southeast Asia after Bulbophyllum. Its natural range extends from Japan south across the Pacific to Tahiti and New Zealand, and from China and India to New Guinea and Australia. Centres of speciation are found in the Himalayan region, Indochina, the Malay Archipelago (especially Sumatra and Borneo), the Philippines and New Guinea. Dendrobiums have been popular with growers since the mid nineteenth century. They continue to be popular today and many beautiful hybrids have been bred.

Borneo is one of several 'hot spots' of Dendrobium speciation. With 167 named species in fifteen sections, as well as several others that remain to be described, Borneo is the second most important location after New Guinea of Dendrobium speciation in Malesia. Most species occur as epiphytes in hill and lower montane forest at moderate elevation, mostly between about 900 and 1 600 m.


Contents

Foreword … ix
Preface … xi
Introduction … 1
Taxonomic History of Dendrobium … 7
Morphology of the Dendrobium Plant … 9
Habit … 9
Root … 13
Shoot … 13
Shoot development in sections Aporum and Crumenata … 14
  Stem … 15
  Leaf … 16
  Inflorescence ... 19
  Floral structure … 22
     Ovary … 23
     Sepals … 23
     Mentum … 23
     Spur formation … 28
     Petals … 28
     Lip … 29
     Column … 50
     Rostellum … 51
     Viscarium … 51
     Scraper … 51
     Stigma … 51
     Anther-cap … 52
     Pollinia … 52
     Seed capsule … 52
     Resupination … 52
Pollination … 53
  Bee pollination … 53
  Honeybees … 54
  Stingless bees … 54
  Miner bees … 56
  Carpenter bees … 56
  Wasps … 56
  Hawk moths … 56
  Bird pollinators … 57
     Sunbirds … 58
Gregarious Flowering … 59
The Origin of the Dendrobiums … 61
  Plate tectonics and the bimodal theory for the evolution of the tribe Dendrobieae … 61
The Dendrobiums of Malesia … 67
  Species widespread in Malesia … 70
  The Dendrobiums of Borneo … 71
  The Dendrobiums of Borneo compared with those of the Philippines, New Guinea and New Caledonia … 72
Molecular Phylogenetics … 75
  Why construct phylogenies? … 77
  Anomalies and questions … 78
  To split or not to split? … 79
  Molecular phylogenetics in action: the
revised status of Dendrobium section
Oxystophyllum … 80
  Sectional concepts used in this account … 84
Homoplasy in Tribe Dendrobieae … 85
Ethnobotany of Bornean Dendrobium … 87
The Importance of Cultivated Living Collections … 89
  The Hortus Botanicus, Leiden and its collection of Bornean Dendrobiums … 89
Living collections of Dendrobium in Borneo … 92
Living collections in Sabah … 92
  Kinabalu Park … 92
  Kipandi Butterfly Park … 93
  Mount Alab Forest Trails … 94
  Poring Orchid Conservation Centre … 94
  Sabah Agricultural Park, Lagud Sebrang, Tenom … 95
  Rainforest Discovery Centre, Sepilok … 96
  Tawau Hills Botanical Garden … 97
Living collections in Sarawak … 97
  Kuching North City Hall Orchid Park … 97
  Orchidwoods Nursery and Garden … 97
  Padawan Pitcher Plant and Wild Orchid
Garden … 98
  Semengoh and René George Memorial Garden … 98
Artificial Key to the Genera of Tribe Dendrobieae in Borneo … 99
Segregate Satellite Genera in Borneo … 100
 Cadetia … 100
 Diplocaulobium … 104
  Epigeneium … 107
  Flickingeria … 112
The Climate and Vegetation of Borneo… 117
Dendrobium Habitats in Borneo … 119
  Mangrove … 119
  Strand and coastal forest and rocks … 119
  Peat swamp forest … 119
  Tropical heath/kerangas forest … 121
  Mixed dipterocarp forest … 123
  Riverine forest (riparian and freshwater swamp forest) … 125
  Montane forests … 125
     Lower montane forest … 126
    Local variations within lower montane forest: oak/conifer forest and casuarina/conifer forest … 130
     Oak/conifer forest … 130
     Casuarina/conifer forest … 130
     Upper montane forest … 131
     Tropical subalpine vegetation … 132
  Limestone forest … 132
     Forests on ultramafic substrate … 134
  Man-made habitats … 136
  Roadside cuttings … 136
  Secondary forest (Belukar) … 136
  Coffee and rubber plantations … 136
  Urban parkland and street trees … 137
Artificial key to the sections of Dendrobium in Borneo … 138
Sections and Species of Dendrobium in Borneo … 140
Enumeration of Species … 143
  Dendrobium Sw. … 143
  Section 1. Amblyanthus Schltr. … 144
     1. Dendrobium microglaphys … 145
  Section 2. Aporum Blume … 151
     Artificial key to the species of section Aporum … 154
     2. Dendrobium acerosum … 158
     3. Dendrobium aloifolium … 162
     4. Dendrobium babiense … 166
     5. Dendrobium barioense … 170
     6. Dendrobium crucilabre … 174
     7. Dendrobium flexile … 176
     8. Dendrobium grande … 181
     9. Dendrobium indivisum … 186
       9a. var. indivisum … 187
       9b. var. fuscum ... 190
       9c. var. pallidum … 193
     10. Dendrobium kentrophyllum … 194
     11. Dendrobium kiauense … 198
     12. Dendrobium korthalsii … 202
     13. Dendrobium leonis … 205
     14. Dendrobium lobatum … 209
     15. Dendrobium lobulatum … 213
     16. Dendrobium lohanense … 215
     17. Dendrobium longiramense … 218
     18. Dendrobium montis-hosei … 220
     19. Dendrobium paitanense ... 222
     20. Dendrobium patentilobum … 224
     21. Dendrobium platyphyllum … 227
     22. Dendrobium pleasancium … 229
     23. Dendrobium prostratum … 233
     24. Dendrobium pseudoaloifolium … 240
     25. Dendrobium quadrilobatum … 244
     26. Dendrobium reflexitepalum … 247
     27. Dendrobium rhodostele … 250
     28. Dendrobium rosellum … 254
     29. Dendrobium sabahense … 259
     30. Dendrobium sambasanum … 262
     31. Dendrobium singaporense … 264
     32. Dendrobium subulatoides … 269
     33. Dendrobium subulatum … 269
     34. Dendrobium tetralobum … 273
     35. Dendrobium uncatum … 274
     36. Dendrobium xanthoacron … 277
     37. Dendrobium xiphophyllum … 282
     Insufficiently Known Taxa … 282
     Putative Natural Hybrid … 285
  Section 3. Bolbodium Lindl. … 287
     Artificial key to the species of section Bolbodium … 287
     38. Dendrobium pachyphyllum … 288
     39. Dendrobium pseudostriatellum … 292
     40. Dendrobium sp. cf. ustulatum … 296
  Section 4. Calcarifera J.J. Sm. … 298
     Artificial key to the species of section Calcarifera … 301
     41. Dendrobium anthrene … 305
     42. Dendrobium calcariferum … 309
     43. Dendrobium chewiorum … 318
     44. Dendrobium corallorhizon … 321
     45. Dendrobium corydaliflorum … 325
     46. Dendrobium crabro … 328
     47. Dendrobium cymbicallum … 332
     48. Dendrobium cymboglossum … 334
     49. Dendrobium derryi … 337
     50. Dendrobium dianae … 346
        Flower colour in five different plants … 349
     51. Dendrobium doloissumbinii … 352
     52. Dendrobium endertii … 355
     53. Dendrobium flos-wanua … 364
     54. Dendrobium hamaticalcar … 367
     55. Dendrobium kelamense … 372
     56. Dendrobium lampongense … 374
     57. Dendrobium muluense … 378
     58. Dendrobium nieuwenhuisii … 381
     59. Dendrobium nudum … 383
     60. Dendrobium paathii … 386
     61. Dendrobium panduriferum … 390
     62. Dendrobium pictum … 394
     63. Dendrobium punbatuense … 400
     64. Dendrobium sanguinolentum … 402
     65. Dendrobium sarawakense … 408
     66. Dendrobium serena-alexianum … 41
     67. Dendrobium spathilingue … 418
     68. Dendrobium tanjiewhoei … 420
     69. Dendrobium yongii … 422
     Insufficiently Known Taxa … 424
     Doubtfully Occurring Taxa … 427
  Section 5. Calyptrochilus Schltr. … 428
     70. Dendrobium erosum … 431
  Section 6. Conostalix Kraenzl. … 434
        Aberrant species of section Conostal … 435
     Artificial key to the species of section Conostalix … 435
     71. Dendrobium attenuatum … 437
     72. Dendrobium bakoense … 439
     73. Dendrobium beamaniorum … 441
     74. Dendrobium deflexilobum … 444
     75. Dendrobium gramineum … 447
     76. Dendrobium hirsutifolium … 452
     77. Dendrobium jamirusii … 455
     78. Dendrobium lobbii … 458
     79. Dendrobium metachilinum … 463
     80. Dendrobium pinifolium … 467
     81. Dendrobium spathipetalum … 471
     82. Dendrobium tomaniense … 474
     83. Dendrobium trullatum … 477
     A Problematic Taxon … 479
  Section 7. Crumenata Pfitzer … 480
     Artificial key to the species of section Crumenata … 482
     84. Dendrobium aciculare … 486
     85. Dendrobium alabense … 489
     86. Dendrobium aurantiflammeum … 492
     87. Dendrobium blumei … 496
     88. Dendrobium cinnabarinum … 500
       88a. var. cinnabarinum … 501
       88b. var. angustitepalum … 505
     89. Dendrobium crumenatum … 508
     90. Dendrobium cymbulipes … 516
     91. Dendrobium devogelii … 520
     92. Dendrobium gracile … 522
     93. Dendrobium grootingsii … 525
     94. Dendrobium gynoglottis … 527
     95. Dendrobium hendersonii … 527
     96. Dendrobium heokhuii … 533
     97. Dendrobium imitator … 537
     98. Dendrobium incurvociliatum … 537
     99. Dendrobium kurashigei … 541
     100. Dendrobium lamelluliferum … 546
     101. Dendrobium lancilobum … 549
       101a. var. lancilobum … 549
       101b. var. roseocalcar … 552
     102. Dendrobium lawiense … 555
     103. Dendrobium limii … 558
     104. Dendrobium lumakuense … 560
     105. Dendrobium minimum … 562
     106. Dendrobium mucrovaginatum … 565
     107. Dendrobium planibulbe … 567
     108. Dendrobium pseudoclavator … 571
     109. Dendrobium pseudokurashigei … 573
     110. Dendrobium puberulilingue … 575
     111. Dendrobium setifolium … 577
     112. Dendrobium singulare … 582
     113. Dendrobium strongyloflorum … 587
     114. Dendrobium tawauense … 589
     115. Dendrobium tenue … 592
     116. Dendrobium tricuspe … 595
     117. Dendrobium tridentatum … 601
     118. Dendrobium truncatum … 604
     An Insufficiently Known Taxon … 606
  Section 8. Dendrobium … 607
     The Former Section Breviflores ... 610
     Artificial key to the species of section Dendrobium … 611
     119. Dendrobium anosmum … 611
     120. Dendrobium heterocarpum … 618
     121. Dendrobium linguella … 622
     122. Dendrobium macrostachyum … 625
     123. Dendrobium pogoniates … 629
     124. Dendrobium stuposum … 631
     125. Dendrobium tetrachromum … 636
  Section 9. Distichophyllae Hook. f. … 640
     Artificial key to the species of section Distichophyllae … 642
     126. Dendrobium baoernianum … 645
     The Dendrobiumbifarium’/D. connatum complex … 649
     127. Dendrobium connatum … 650
       127a. var. connatum … 651
       127b. var. distachyon … 663
     128. Dendrobium daimandauii … 668
     129. Dendrobium hepaticum … 671
     130. Dendrobium hosei … 675
     131. Dendrobium kenepaiense … 679
     132. Dendrobium lambii … 685
     133. Dendrobium lamrianum … 689
     134. Dendrobium lohokii … 692
     135. Dendrobium maraiparaiense … 696
     136. Dendrobium meiernianum … 699
     137. Dendrobium moquetteanum … 702
     138. Dendrobium nabawanense … 705
     139. Dendrobium olivaceum … 710
     140. Dendrobium pachyanthum … 713
     141. Dendrobium pandaneti … 717
     142. Dendrobium piranha … 720
     143. Dendrobium sandsii … 723
     144. Dendrobium uniflorum … 726
     Insufficiently Known Taxa … 733
  Section 10. Formosae (Benth. & Hook. f.) Hook. f. … 737
     Artificial key to the species of section Formosae … 739
     145. Dendrobium bostrychodes … 741
     146. Dendrobium dearei … 746
     147. Dendrobium erythropogon … 750
     148. Dendrobium lowii … 753
     149. Dendrobium ovipostoriferum … 760
     150. Dendrobium parthenium … 764
     151. Dendrobium radians … 768
     152. Dendrobium sculptum … 772
     153. Dendrobium singkawangense … 776
     154. Dendrobium sinsuronense … 781
     154. Dendrobium spectatissimum … 784
     156. Dendrobium toppiorum subsp. toppiorum … 788
  Section 11. Fugacia J.J. Sm. … 791
     157. Dendrobium spurium … 793
  Section 12. Grastidium Blume … 796
     Artificial key to the species of section Grastidium … 799
     158. Dendrobium acuminatissimum … 800
     159. Dendrobium indragiriense … 803
     160. Dendrobium pensile … 807
     161. Dendrobium salaccense … 811
     162. Dendrobium torquisepalum … 815
  Section 13. Latouria Miq. … 816
     163. Dendrobium macrophyllum var. ternatense … 818
  Section 14. Pedilonum Blume … 823
     164. Dendrobium secundum … 825
  Section 15. Platycaulon Schltr. … 834
     Artificial key to species of section Platycaulon … 835
     The Dendrobium lamellatum sensu lato/D. compressum complex … 836
     165. Dendrobium compressum … 838
     166. Dendrobium platycaulon ... 845
     167. Dendrobium pseudolamellatum … 849
Appendices … 853
     Excluded taxa erroneously recorded from Borneo … 853
     Excluded taxa … 854
     Taxa requiring further research … 855
     Index to numbered collections … 856
     Bornean Dendrobium accessions at the Hortus Botanicus, Leiden, The Netherlands … 871
       Fully determined species … 871
       Partly determined species … 878
       Species determined to section only … 879
       Undetermined species … 880
Glossary of Scientific Terms and Abbreviations … 881
   Suffixes … 881
   Prefixes … 881
   Main Glossary … 882
Commonly used Malay and Local Geographical Terms … 910
Literature Cited … 910
Acknowledgements … 921
Index to Orchid Scientific Names … 922
Index to Non-orchid Scientific Names … 939
General Index … 942


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