Books  Sustainable Development  Agriculture & Food 

Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry & Functional Biology

Series: World in Agriculture

By: Paul H Moore (Editor), Frederik C Botha (Editor)

716 pages, plates with colour photos and colour illustrations; b/w photos, b/w illustrations

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Dec 2013 | #220630 | ISBN-13: 9780813821214
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £153.00 $194/€183 approx

About this book

Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry & Functional Biology looks at the development of a suite of well-established and developing biofuels derived from sugarcane and cane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This single volume resource brings together essential information to researchers and industry personnel interested in utilizing and developing new fuels and bioproducts derived from cane crops.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
Contributors xix

1 Sugarcane: The Crop, the Plant, and Domestication 1
2 Anatomy and Morphology 19
3 Developmental Stages (Phenology) 35
4 Ripening and Postharvest Deterioration 55
5 Mineral Nutrition of Sugarcane 85
6 Photosynthesis in Sugarcane 121
7 Respiration as a Competitive Sink for Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane Culm: Perspectives and Open Questions 155
8 Nitrogen Physiology of Sugarcane 169
9 Water Relations and Cell Expansion of Storage Tissue 197
10 Water, Transpiration, and Gas Exchange 221
11 Transport Proteins in Plant Growth and Development 255
12 Phloem Transport of Resources 267
13 Cell Walls: Structure and Biogenesis 307
14 Hormones and Growth Regulators 331
15 Flowering 379
16 Stress Physiology: Abiotic Stresses 411
17 Mechanisms of Resistance to Pests and Pathogens in Sugarcane and Related Crop Species 435
18 Source and Sink Physiology 483
19 Biomass and Bioenergy 521
20 Crop Models 541
21 Sugarcane Yields and Yield-Limiting Processes 579
22 Systems Biology and Metabolic Modeling 601
23 Sugarcane Genetics and Genomics 623
24 Sugarcane Biotechnology: Axenic Culture, Gene Transfer, and Transgene Expression 645

Index 683
Color plate is located between pages 34 and 35


Detailed table of contents:

Foreword xv
Preface xvii
Contributors xix

1 Sugarcane: The Crop, the Plant, and Domestication 1
Summary 1
Introduction 1
Singular Properties of the Genus Saccharum and Its Members 2
Secondary and Tertiary Gene Pools, Germplasm Resources 7
Evolution and Improvement of Sugarcanes 9
References 15

2 Anatomy and Morphology 19
Summary 19
Introduction 19
Plant Morphology 20
The Culm 20
The Leaf 26
The Inflorescence 29
The Root 30
Conclusion 32
References 33

3 Developmental Stages (Phenology) 35
Summary 35
Introduction 35
Stages of Development 38
Development of Roots 48
Molecular Control of Development 49
Conclusions 50
Acknowledgment 50
References 50

4 Ripening and Postharvest Deterioration 55
Summary 55
Abbreviations List 55
Natural Ripening 55
Chemical Ripening 61
Postharvest Deterioration 72
References 79

5 Mineral Nutrition of Sugarcane 85
Summary 85
Introduction 85
Introductory Concepts in Plant Nutrition 85
Primary Nutrients 87
Secondary Nutrients 97
Minor Nutrients 102
Beneficial Element 109
Toxic Element 112
Novel Applications of GeneticManipulation to Plant Nutrition 113
Acknowledgments 115
References 115

6 Photosynthesis in Sugarcane 121
Summary 121
Introduction 121
C4 Photosynthesis–Agronomic and Ecological Significance 122
The Biochemistry of C3 and C4 Photosynthesis 124
Environmental Physiology 131
Photosynthetic Capacity in Sugarcane 147
Conclusion 149
References 149

7 Respiration as a Competitive Sink for Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane Culm: Perspectives and Open Questions 155
Summary 155
Introduction 155
Toward Understanding Respiration and Plant Yield in Sugarcane 157
Transcriptional Regulation of Respiration 163
Identifying Core Genes Involved in Posttranscriptional Regulation of Respiratory Flux in Sugarcane 163
Conclusions 164
References 165

8 Nitrogen Physiology of Sugarcane 169
Summary 169
Introduction 169
Setting the Scene: Nitrogen in the Sugarcane Crop System 173
Microbial Associations and Symbioses for Nitrogen Acquisition 174
Nitrogen and Sugarcane Productivity 176
Nitrogen Assimilation and Agronomic Gains 182
Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency through Genetic Engineering 189
Conclusions 190
References 190

9 Water Relations and Cell Expansion of Storage Tissue 197
Summary 197
Introduction 197
Properties of Water, Cell Walls, and Cell Membranes 198
Applying Principles of Water Relations to Sugarcane 198
Plastic versus Elastic Cell Expansion 200
Water-Potential Isotherms 202
Estimating Apoplastic Volume in Sugarcane 203
Sugarcane Culm Growth and Development 204
Early Model of Sucrose Accumulation in Culm Tissue 205
Apoplastic Sucrose 205
Sugarcane Species Comparisons 213
Conclusion 217
References 218

10 Water, Transpiration, and Gas Exchange 221
Summary 221
Abbreviation List 221
The Challenge of Gas Exchange 223
The Properties of Water 226
Transport of Liquid Water 227
Transport of Water Vapor 233
Stomatal Regulation of Water Loss 237
Conclusion 248
References 249

11 Transport Proteins in Plant Growth and Development 255
Summary 255
Transport Basics 255
Facilitated Diffusion 256
Active Transporters 256
Ion Transport 259
Membrane Transport in the Context of Whole Plant Physiology 259
Functional Analysis of Transport Proteins 262
Conclusion 263
References 263

12 Phloem Transport of Resources 267
Summary 267
Introduction 267
General Principles and Concepts of Resource Transport in the Phloem 268
Phloem Transport of Resources in Sugarcane 277
Acknowledgments 298
References 298

13 Cell Walls: Structure and Biogenesis 307
Summary 307
Introduction 307
Distinctive Features of Sugarcane Cell Wall Composition 310
Major Cell Wall Constituents 311
Expansive Growth of the Cell Wall 323
Grass Cell Walls as Forage and Biofuel Feedstock 324
Closing Remarks 325
References 325

14 Hormones and Growth Regulators 331
Summary 331
Introduction 331
Auxin 332
Gibberellins 339
Cytokinins 344
Ethylene 350
Abscisic Acid 355
Strigolactones 360
Brassinosteroids 362
Jasmonates 365
Salicylic Acid 366
Peptide Hormones Including Florigen 369
Perspective 373
References 373

15 Flowering 379
Summary 379
Introduction 380
Developmental Phases 380
Repeatability of Flowering Date 381
Seasonality 381
Latitudinal Distribution of Flowering Types 383
Photoperiodism 383
Minimum Number of Initiating Photoperiodic Cycles 385
Photoperiodic Ecotypes and Heritability of the Photoperiod Response 385
Effect of Light Intensity and Quality 387
Effect of Temperature 387
Effect of PlantWater and Nutrient Status 389
Role of Leaves 390
Biochemical Signaling, the Flowering Hormone 391
Development 392
Flowering Control: The Breeders’ Viewpoint 393
Photoperiod Facilities–Design Considerations 399
Synchronization for Hybridization 400
Flowering Control: The Growers’ Viewpoint 402
References 406

16 Stress Physiology: Abiotic Stresses 411
Summary 411
Introduction 411
Abiotic Stresses: Basic Concepts 412
Water Stress 413
Salinity Stress 422
Sodicity 424
Temperature Stress 425
Waterlogging and Flooding Tolerance 427
Signal Perception, Transduction and Gene Regulation Associated with Abiotic Stresses 428
Toward Engineering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Sugarcane 429
References 430

17 Mechanisms of Resistance to Pests and Pathogens in Sugarcane and Related Crop Species 435
Summary 435
Abbreviation List 435
Introduction 436
Forms of Resistance 438
Plant Defense Hormones 444
Resistance at the Surface 445
Cell Wall Strengthening 447
Soluble Phenolics 451
Terpenes 456
Nonprotein, N-based Defense 457
Protein-based Defense 461
Indirect Defense 468
Defense Theory and the Cost of Defense to Plants 472
Priming of Resistance 474
Perspectives 475
References 476

18 Source and Sink Physiology 483
Summary 483
Introduction 483
General Principles of Source-Sink Physiology 485
Communication from Source to Sink: Role of Sugars and Transport Mechanisms 491
Interactions between Source Activity and Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane 495
Regulation of Source Activity 499
Interpretation of Approaches to Increase Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane 503
Sugar Sensing and Signalling: Potential Targets 506
Source–Sink Relations in Changing Climates 509
Concluding Comments: Future Directions and Relevance 512
References 513

19 Biomass and Bioenergy 521
Summary 521
Introduction 521
Biorefineries for Bioenergy and Biomaterials 524
Bioenergy Feedstock Crops 526
Life-cycle Environmental Effects 530
Sugarcane: An Established Biomass and Bioenergy Crop 531
Energycane 532
Bioethanol 534
Lignocellulose for Second Generation Bioenergy 535
Promises and Problems of Sugarcane Cell Wall in Second Generation Bioethanol 535
Biotechnology Potentials for Bioenergy 536
Conclusions 537
References 538

20 Crop Models 541
Summary 541
Abbreviation List 541
Introduction 542
Basic Concepts for Simulating Aspects of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System 544
Sugarcane Process Models 550
Representation of Sugarcane Physiology in Process Models 562
The Potential of Crop Modeling to Enhance Sugarcane Genetic Improvement 565
Functional Models 569
Conclusion 571
References 571

21 Sugarcane Yields and Yield-Limiting Processes 579
Summary 579
Introduction 580
Canopy Development (LAI) 581
Radiation Interception 588
Photosynthesis 590
RUE 590
Dry Matter Partitioning 591
Potential, Attainable, and Actual Yields 594
References 598

22 Systems Biology and Metabolic Modeling 601
Summary 601
Introduction to Systems Biology 601
The Metabolic Kinetic Model 604
Metabolic Control Analysis 608
Kinetic Modeling of Plant Physiology 609
Modeling Sugarcane Physiology 611
The Future of Kinetic Modeling in the Context of the Omics Era 619
References 620

23 Sugarcane Genetics and Genomics 623
Summary 623
Introduction 623
Genetic Diversity 624
Molecular Cytogenetics 625
GeneticMapping 627
Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci 629
Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 630
Map-Based Cloning: The Example of the Rust Resistance Gene 634
EST Resources 635
Conservation and Collinearity in the Genome Structure of Sugarcane and Its Close Relatives 637
Prospects 638
References 639

24 Sugarcane Biotechnology: Axenic Culture, Gene Transfer, and Transgene Expression 645
Summary 645
Tissue Culture 645
Gene Transfer 654
Transgene Expression and Gene Silencing 669
When Genomics Meet Transgenics 673
Applications of Transgenic Sugarcane 673
References 674

Index 683
Color plate is located between pages 34 and 35


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Biography

Paul H. Moore is head of the Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Unit of the Hawaii Agriculture Research Center in Kunia,, Hawai'i and former Research Leader of the USDA/ARS Sugarcane Research Unit.

Frederik C. Botha is Executive Research Manager of Sugar Research Australia in Queensland, and former Director of the South African Sugarcane Research Institute.

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