Books  Zoology  Mammals  Bats (Chiroptera) 

Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases

By: Lin-Fa Wang (Editor), Christopher Cowled (Editor)

386 pages, 18 plates with colour photos and colour illustrations; b/w photos, b/w illustrations, tables

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Sep 2015 | #221258 | ISBN-13: 9781118818732
Availability: In stock
NHBS Price: £100.50 $127/€119 approx

About this book

Approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses. The rate of emergence of zoonotic viruses appears to be increasing and/or our ability to detect new viruses is improving. Bats are increasingly recognised as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Several recent studies hypothesized that bats, an ancient group of flying mammals, are the major reservoir of several important RNA virus families from which most (if not all) other known mammalian viruses of livestock animals and humans were derived. As the only flying mammal on earth, bats have several unique biological features distinguishing them from all other mammals. Recent genomics studies revealed that the adaptation of flight is linked to a bat's ability to live longer and harbour a large number of viruses without suffering from disease.

There has been a very rapid increase in the number of related publications in the 2000s. This is mainly due to the discovery of bats as reservoir of major zoonotic viruses such as Henipavirus, SARS virus and Ebola/Marburg viruses in the 1990s, which triggered a new wave of research. In addition to the large number of bat viruses discovered in the last two decades, the research interest has also expanded to the host biology, especially in the area of immunology and genomics marked by the recent publication of the two bat genomes in Science (Zhang et al. 2013 Science, 339: 456-460) as a cover story. It is unfortunate that for such an important and rapidly expanding area of research, there has been no publication of any dedicated book on this topic.

The last book published in this area is a monograph titled Virus Infections in Bats in 1974. This is the time to produce a book dedicated to this important topic which has witnessed tremendous growth in the last four decades. The aim of this project is to provide a most updated review of our knowledge in the area of bat biology and bats as a host of major zoonotic viruses. Bats and Viruses covers a wide range of topics from bat biology, bat immunology, and bat genomics to pathogen discovery, and specific chapters on each of the major bat-borne virus families. Bats and Viruses also provides a chapter remarking on the future direction of research in this important and rapidly growing area.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

List of Contributors xiii
Preface xv

1 The Uniqueness of Bats 1
2 Viruses in Bats: A Historic Review 23
3 Bat Lyssaviruses 47
4 Bat Paramyxoviruses 99
5 Bat Coronaviruses 127
6 Bat Filoviruses 157
7 Bats and Reverse Transcribing RNA And DNA Viruses 177
8 Bat Reoviruses 203
9 Other Bat-Borne Viruses 217
10 Anthropogenic Epidemics: The Ecology of Bat-Borne Viruses and Our Role in Their Emergence 249
11 Are Bats Really “Special” as viral reservoirs? What We Know and Need to Know 281

References 342
Species Index 349
Subject Index 361


Detailed table of contents:

List of Contributors xiii
Preface xv

1 THE UNIQUENESS OF BATS 1
Paul A. Racey
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Flight 2
1.3 Echolocation 4
1.4 Communication 5
1.5 Foraging, Diet, and Ecosystem Services 5
1.6 Heterothermy, Daily Torpor, and Hibernation 7
1.7 Reproduction 8
1.8 Life History Strategies 9
1.9 Roosting Ecology 9
1.9.1 Caves 9
1.9.2 Trees 10
1.9.3 Houses 10
1.9.4 Foliage 10
1.9.5 Roosts of other species 11
1.9.6 Roost fidelity 11
1.10 Migration 11
1.11 Climate Change 12
1.12 Disease ]Related Mortality 13
1.13 Conservation and Disease Surveillance 14
Acknowledgment 14
References 15

2 VIRUSES IN BATS: A HISTORIC REVIEW 23
Charles H. Calisher
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Knowledge of Bats, Background 25
2.3 Early, Somewhat Random Bat Virus Discoveries 25
2.4 More Recent Bat Virus Discoveries 27
2.4.1 Marburg and Ebola viruses (order Mononegavirales, family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, respectively) 27
2.4.2 Hendra and Nipah viruses (order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus), and other paramyxoviruses 28
2.4.3 Coronaviruses (order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, genus Coronavirus) 30
2.4.4 Other viruses detected in bats 31
2.5 Summary 36
Acknowledgments 41
References 41

3 BAT LYSSAVIRUSES 47
Ivan V. Kuzmin and Charles E. Rupprecht
3.1 Lyssavirus Genus 47
3.2 Pathobiology 54
3.3 Surveillance and Diagnosis 57
3.4 General Biological Considerations on Bat Rabies 59
3.5 Global Distribution of Bat Lyssaviruses 62
3.5.1 The Americas 62
3.5.2 Africa 69
3.5.3 Eurasia 72
3.5.4 Australia 78
3.6 Public Health and Veterinary Significance of Bat Rabies 80
3.7 Conclusions 84
References 85

4 BAT PARAMYXOVIRUSES 99
Danielle E. Anderson and Glenn A. Marsh
4.1 Introduction to the Paramyxoviridae 99
4.1.1 Virus structure 100
4.1.2 Genome organization 101
4.1.3 Paramyxovirus replication 103
4.2 Bats as a Major Source of New Paramyxoviruses 105
4.2.1 Sampling methods 105
4.2.2 Methodologies utilized in the detection and characterization of paramyxoviruses 106
4.3 Known Bat Paramyxoviruses 109
4.3.1 Hendra virus (HeV) 109
4.3.2 Nipah virus (NiV) 111
4.3.3 Menangle virus (MenPV) 112
4.3.4 Cedar virus (CedPV) 113
4.3.5 Mapuera virus (MprPV) 114
4.3.6 Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) 114
4.3.7 Tioman virus (TioPV) 114
4.3.8 Achimota viruses (AchPV) 114
4.3.9 Tukoko viruses (ThkPV) 115
4.3.10 Sosuga virus (SosPV) 115
4.3.11 Other paramyxoviruses 115
4.4 Risks, Control, and Prevention 116
4.4.1 Risk of spillover 116
4.4.2 Reservoir host management 117
4.4.3 Vaccines 117
4.5 Conclusions 118
Acknowledgments 118
References 118

5 BAT CORONAVIRUSES 127
Xing-Yi Ge, Ben Hu, and Zheng-Li Shi
5.1 Introduction 127
5.2 Human Diseases Related to Bat Coronaviruses 134
5.2.1 SARS 134
5.2.2 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) 140
5.3 Genetic Diversity of Bat Coronaviruses 142
5.3.1 Alphacoronaviruses 142
5.3.2 Betacoronaviruses 145
5.3.3 Gammacoronaviruses 146
5.3.4 Classification of coronaviruses 146
5.4 Conclusions 147
Acknowledgments 148
References 148

6 BAT FILOVIRUSES 157
Gael Darren Maganga, Virginie Rougeron, and Eric Maurice Leroy
6.1 Introduction 157
6.2 Marburgvirus Outbreaks 158
6.3 Ebolavirus Outbreaks 159
6.3.1 Ebolavirus and Sudan ebolavirus 159
6.3.2 Tai Forest and Bundibugyo ebolaviruses 160
6.3.3 Reston ebolavirus 160
6.4 Filoviruses in Yinpterochiropteran Bats 160
6.4.1 Ebolaviruses 161
6.4.2 Marburgvirus 161
6.5 Filoviruses in Yangochiroptera Bats 163
6.5.1 Ebolaviruses 163
6.5.2 Marburgvirus 163
6.5.3 Cuevavirus 163
6.6 Ecological and Epidemiological Patterns in Bats 164
6.6.1 An extended natural geographic distribution 164
6.6.2 Bats as drivers of filoviruses emergence and spillover? 164
6.6.3 Uncertainty surrounding the identification of the Lloviu virus reservoir 167
6.7 Bat Filovirus Characterization 167
6.7.1 Filovirus isolation 167
6.7.2 Filovirus RNA detection 168
6.7.3 Filovirus antigen detection 168
6.7.4 Whole genome amplification 168
6.8 Conclusions 169
Acknowledgments 170
References 170

7 BATS AND REVERSE TRANSCRIBING RNA AND DNA VIRUSES 177
Gilda Tachedjian, Joshua A. Hayward, and Jie Cui
7.1 Introduction to Reverse Transcribing RNA and DNA Viruses 177
7.1.1 Retroviruses 177
7.1.2 Hepadnaviruses 180
7.2 Endogenous Retroviruses in Bats 181
7.2.1 Endogenous retroviruses: A transposable element subclass 181
7.2.2 Endogenous retroviruses originate from exogenous retroviruses 182
7.2.3 Endogenous retrovirus nomenclature 182
7.2.4 Role of transposable elements and endogenous retroviruses in disease and host evolution 183
7.2.5 Endogenous retroviruses as fossil records of ancient exogenous retroviruses 184
7.3 Gammaretroviruses in Bats of Different Suborders 184
7.3.1 Gammaretroviruses: host range and diseases 184
7.3.2 Discovery of gammaretroviruses in bats 185
7.4 Betaretroviruses in Bats of Different Suborders 187
7.4.1 Betaretroviruses: host range and diseases 187
7.4.2 Betaretroviruses in bat transcriptomes and genomes 188
7.4.3 Extensive diversity among bat betaretroviruses 188
7.5 Pathogenic Hepadnaviruses Related to HBV in Bats 191
7.6 Bat Metagenomics Studies 192
7.7 Bats as Potential Reservoirs for Retroviral and Hepadnaviral Zoonoses 194
7.8 Conclusions 195
Acknowledgments 196
References 196

8 BAT REOVIRUSES 203
Claudia Kohl and Andreas Kurth
8.1 Introduction 203
8.1.1 Background 203
8.1.2 Reovirus taxonomy and disease epidemiology 203
8.2 Orthoreoviruses of Bats and Humans 206
8.2.1 Nelson Bay orthoreovirus 206
8.2.2 Other bat ]related orthoreoviruses 210
8.3 Bat Orbiviruses 211
8.4 Bat Rotaviruses 211
8.5 Zoonotic Potential of Bat Reoviruses 213
Acknowledgments 213
References 213

9 OTHER BAT-BORNE VIRUSES 217
Krista Queen, Mang Shi, Larry J. Anderson, and Suxiang Tong

9.1 Introduction 217
9.2 RNA Viruses 218
9.2.1 Influenza viruses 218
9.2.2 Alphaviruses 227
9.2.3 Bunyaviruses 227
9.2.4 Flaviviruses 229
9.2.5 Arenaviruses 231
9.2.6 Picornaviruses 231
9.2.7 Astroviruses 233
9.2.8 Caliciviruses 234
9.3 DNA Viruses 234
9.3.1 Adenoviruses 234
9.3.2 Herpesviruses 235
9.3.3 Poxviruses 236
9.3.4 Polyomaviruses 236
9.3.5 Parvoviruses 237
9.3.6 Papillomaviruses 238
9.4 Conclusions 238
References 239

10 ANTHROPOGENIC EPIDEMICS: THE ECOLOGY OF BAT-BORNE VIRUSES AND OUR ROLE IN THEIR EMERGENCE 249
Jonathan H. Epstein and Hume E. Field
10.1 Introduction 249
10.2 The Bat–Human and Bat–Livestock Interface: The Importance of Disease Ecology 250
10.3 Approaches to Understanding the Ecology of Bat ]Borne Viruses 253
10.3.1 Observational study design 254
10.3.2 Mathematical models 257
10.3.3 Outbreak response and long ]term ecological study 258
10.4 Anthropogenic Activities Drive Zoonotic Disease Emergence from Bats 263
10.4.1 Agricultural expansion/intensification: Nipah virus 263
10.4.2 Urbanization: Hendra virus 266
10.4.3 Wildlife trade: SARS ]CoV 268
10.4.4 Bushmeat hunting: Ebola virus 271
10.5 Outbreak Mitigation: Managing the Interface 272
10.6 Conclusions 273
Acknowledgments 274
References 274

11 ARE BATS REALLY “SPECIAL” AS VIRAL RESERVOIRS? WHAT WE KNOW AND NEED TO KNOW 281
Kevin J. Olival, Cristin C. Weekley, and Peter Daszak
11.1 Introduction 281
11.2 What Factors May Make a Host Taxon “Special” as a Viral Reservoir? 282
11.3 Factors that May Confound Investigations of Whether or Not a Taxonomic Group is “Special” 282
11.3.1 Research bias towards certain hosts and pathogens 282
11.3.2 Lack of thorough disease ecology studies 283
11.3.3 The ability to measure immune responses and detect illness in hosts 284
11.4 Viral Diversity in Bats Compared to other Mammalian Hosts 286
11.4.1 Do bats harbor a disproportionate number of viruses? 286
11.4.2 Do bats harbor a disproportionate number of zoonoses? 286
11.4.3 Focused literature review of bat viral discovery efforts from the past 7 years 288
11.5 Life History Traits: Are Bats Unique? 288
11.6 Distribution and Diversity of Bat Viruses, and Ways to Target Future Discovery Efforts 291
11.7 Summary and Future Research 292
References 293

12 ANIMAL MODELS OF RECENTLY EMERGED BAT ]BORNE VIRUSES 295
Jackie A. Pallister and Deborah J. Middleton
12.1 Introduction 295
12.2 SARS Coronavirus 296
12.2.1 Human disease 296
12.2.2 Small animal models 296
12.2.3 Nonhuman primates 298
12.2.4 Spillover hosts 298
12.2.5 Reservoir host 298
12.3 Filoviruses 299
12.3.1 Human disease 299
12.3.2 Small animal models 300
12.3.3 Nonhuman primates 300
12.3.4 Spillover hosts 301
12.3.5 Reservoir host 302
12.4 Paramyxoviruses 302
12.4.1 Human disease 302
12.4.2 Small animal models 303
12.4.3 Nonhuman primates 304
12.4.4 Spillover hosts 305
12.4.5 Reservoir host 305
12.5 Conclusions 306
References 306

13 BAT GENOMICS 315
James W. Wynne and Mary Tachedjian
13.1 Introduction 315
13.2 Genomics 316
13.2.1 The era of bat genomics 316
13.2.2 Phylogenomics 317
13.2.3 Immunity 317
13.2.4 Gene family expansion 319
13.2.5 Longevity 319
13.2.6 Hibernation 320
13.2.7 Echolocation and convergent evolution 320
13.2.8 Genomic adaptations associated with flight 321
13.2.9 Limitations of genome sequencing 321
13.3 Transcriptomics and MicroRNAs 322
13.3.1 Cataloging immune genes 322
13.3.2 Functional genomics of echolocation 323
13.3.3 MicroRNA discovery 323
13.3.4 Bat specific gene discovery through transcriptomics 323
13.4 Conclusions 324
References 324

14 BAT IMMUNOLOGY 327
Michelle L. Baker and Peng Zhou
14.1 Introduction 327
14.2 Immune Tissues and Cells 328
14.3 Innate Immunity 329
14.3.1 Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) 329
14.3.2 Interferon (IFN) family members 330
14.3.3 Production of IFNs by bat cells 331
14.3.4 IFN receptors and downstream signaling molecules 333
14.3.5 Interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) 334
14.3.6 MicroRNAs 335
14.4 Adaptive Immunity 335
14.4.1 Immunoglobulins 336
14.4.2 Antibody mediated immune responses to experimental viral infections 336
14.4.3 Maternally derived antibody protection 338
14.4.4 T ]cell ]mediated immune responses 339
14.4.5 The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) 340
14.4.6 Cytokines 340
14.5 Conclusions 341
References 342

Species Index 349
Subject Index 361


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Biography

Lin-Fa Wang is Director of the Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, and an Office of the Chief Executive Science Leader at CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Christopher Cowled is a Research Scientist at the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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