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The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

Provides the only comprehensive reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
Written by nearly 100 world experts in volcanology
Explores an integrated transition from the physical process of eruptions through hazards and risk, to the social face of volcanism, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
Presents hundreds of color photographs, maps, charts and illustrations making this an aesthetically appealing reference
On-line supplement includes additional multimedia
Glossary of 3 000 key terms with definitions of all key vocabulary items in the field is included

By: Haraldur Sigurdsson (Editor), Bruce Houghton (Editor), Stephen R McNutt (Editor), Hazel Rymer (Editor), John Stix (Editor), Stephen RSJ Sparks (Foreword By)

1421 pages, colour & b/w photos, colour & b/w illustrations, colour & b/w maps, colour tables

Academic Press

Hardback | May 2015 | Edition: 2 | #222425 | ISBN-13: 9780123859389
Availability: Usually dispatched within 48 hours
NHBS Price: £120.00 $147/€134 approx

About this book

Volcanoes are unquestionably one of the most spectacular and awe-inspiring features of the physical world. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic beauty and powerful, sometimes deadly, destructiveness. Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes; it provides a comprehensive source of information on the causes of volcanic eruptions and both the destructive and beneficial effects. The early chapters focus on the science of volcanism (melting of source rocks, ascent of magma, eruption processes, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). Later chapters discuss human interface with volcanoes, including the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity

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R.D. Ballard, Foreword

Origin and Transport of Magma
- H. Sigurdsson, B. Houghton, H. Rymer, J. Stix, and S. McNutt, Introduction
- H. Sigurdsson, The History of Volcanology
- R. Jeanloz, Mantle of the Earth
- P. Asimov, Melting the Mantle
- M. Daines, Migration of Melt
- M. Perfit and J. Davidson, Tectonics and Volcanism
- N.W. Rogers and C.J. Hawkesworth, Composition of Magmas
- T.L. Grove, Origin of Magmas
- P.J. Wallace and A.T. Anderson, Volatiles in Magmas
- F.J. Spera, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Magmas
- B.D. Marsh, Reservoirs of Magma and Magma Chambers
- M.J. Rutherford and J. Gardner, Rates of Magma Ascent
- C. Carrigan, Plumbing Systems
- C. Jaupart, Magma at Shallow Levels

- T. Simkin and L.Siebert, Active Volcanoes on the Earth
- D.M. Pyle, Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions
- H. Sigurdsson, Episodes of Volcanism

Effusive Volcanism
- G.P.L. Walker, Basaltic Volcanoes and Volcanic Systems
- C. Kilburn, Lava Flows
- J. Fink and S. Anderson, Domes and Coulees
- J. Wolff and J. Sumner, Spatter-Fed Lavas and Fire-Fountaining
- C. Conner and M. Conway, Basaltic Volcanic Fields
- P. Hooper, Flood Basalt Provinces
- R. Batiza and J. White, Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite
- R. Schmidt and H.-U. Schmincke, Seamounts, Submarine Volcanoes, and Volcanic Islands
- J. Smellie, Sub-Glacial Eruptions

Explosive Volcanism
- Cashman, B. Sturtevant, P. Papale, and O. Navon, Magmatic Fragmentation
- M.M. Morrisey, B. Zimoriski, K. Wohletz, and R. Buettner, Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation
- S. Vergniolle and M. Mangan, Strombolian and Hawaiian Eruptions
- M.M. Morrissey and L.G. Mastin, Vulcanian Eruptions
- Cioni, P. Marianelli, R. Santecroce, and A. Sbrana, Plinian Eruptions
- J.D.L. White and B. Houghton, Pyroclastic Eruptions
- B.F. Houghton, C.J.N. Wilson, R.T. Smith, and J.S. Gilbert, Phreatoplinian Eruptions
- S. Carey and M.I. Bursik, Volcanic Plumes
- C.J.N. Wilson and B.F. Houghton, Pyroclastic Transport and Deposition
- B.F. Houghton, C.J.N. Wilson, and D.M. Pyle, Fall Deposits
- G. Valentine and R.V. Fisher, Deposits of Surges and Directed Blasts
- A. Freundt, S.N. Carey, and C.J.N. Wilson, Ignimbrites and Deposits of Block-and-Ash Flows
- J.W. Vallance, Lahar Deposits
- T. Ui and M. Yoshimoto, Debris Avalanche Deposits
- S. Carey, Volcaniclastic Sedimentation Around Island Arces
- P.W. Lipman, Calderas
- J.P. Davidson and S. Da Silva, Composite Cones
- D. Vespermann and H.U. Schmincke, Scoria Cones and Tuff Rings

Extraterrestrial Volcanism
- P.D. Spudis, Volcanism on the Moon
- R. Lopes-Gautier, Volcanism on IO
- L. Crumpler, Volcanism on Venus
- J.R. Zimbelman, Volcanism on Mars
- P. Geissler, Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System

Volcano Interactions
- P. delMelle and J. Stix, Volcanic Gases
- F. Goff and C. Janik, Geothermal Systems
- P. Browne and M. Hochstein, Surface Manifestations
- D. Butterfield, Submarine Hydrothermal Vents
- P. delMelle and A. Bernard, Volcanic Lakes
- N.C. White and R.J. Harrington, Mineral Deposits Associated with Volcanism

Volcanic Hazards
- T.P. Miller and T.J. Casadevall, Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation
- M.J. Mills and O.B. Toon, Volcanic Aerosol and Global Atmospheric Effect
- S. Nekada, Hazards from Pyroclastic Flows and Surges
- D. Peterson and R.I. Tilling, Lava Flow Hazards
- K. Rodolfo, Lahars and Jokulhlaup Hazards
- H. Rymer and G. Williams-Jones, Volcanic Gas Hazards
- J.E. Beget, Volcanic Tsunamis
- S.R. McNutt, Volcanic Seismicity
- P. Baxter, Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health
- M. Arthur, The Volcanic Contribution to the Sulfur and Carbon Geochemical Cycle
- I. Thornton, The Ecology of Volcanoes-Biological Recovery and Colonization
- M. Rampino and S. Self, Volcanism and Biotic Extinction

Eruption Response and Mitigation
- S.R. McNutt, Seismic Monitoring
- J.B. Murray, C.A. Locke, and H.Rymer, Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics
- J. Stix and H. Gaonach, Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring
- S. McNutt, J. Stix, and H. Rymer, Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring
- C. Newhall, Volcano Warnings
- S. de la Cruz, R. Quaas, and R. Meli, Volcanic Crisis Management
- R. Blong, Volcanic Hazards and Risk Management
- D. Johnson and K. Ronan, Risk Education and Intervention

Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism
- S. Arnorsson, Exploitation of Geothermal Resources
- C-l. Ping, Volcanic Soils
- J. Dehn and S.R. McNutt, Volcanic Materials for Commerce and Industry
- H. Sigurdsson and R. Lopes-Gautier, Volcanoes and Tourism
- S. Harris, Archaeology and Volcanism
- H. Sigurdsson, Volcanoes in Art
- H. Sigurdsson and R. Lopes, Volcanoes in Literature and Film

- Units and Physical Properties of the Earth
- Volcanoes of the Earth

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Haraldur Sigurdsson is emeritus professor at the Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island in the United States of America. He has worked on volcanic processes and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks for over fifty years. His studies have in part been focused on the impact of volcanic activity on human populations, especially his work on Vesuvius in Italy, Tambora in Indonesia, El Chichon in Mexico and studies of deadly gas bursts from Cameroon crater lakes. He has also studied the global environmental effects of meteorite impacts, such as the one that marks the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. His books include Melting the Earth, accounting for the evolution of ideas about formation of magmas and the origin of volcanic eruptions. Haraldur is currently director of the Volcano Museum in Stykkisholmur, Iceland.

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon MacDonald Professor in Volcanology at University of Hawaii at Manoa and Hawaiian State Volcanologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He is also Science Director at the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at University of Hawaii. Previously he had a career of twenty five years as a volcanologist in New Zealand, culminating in leading the scientific response to the 1995-96 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. Bruce has published over 220 research papers in international journals and has worked in Alaska, Chile, El Salvador, Greece, Hawaii, Iceland, Italy, Germany, Nicaragua, Thailand and New Zealand.

Steve McNutt is a Professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida (USF). He has worked on volcanic processes using seismology, infrasound, and lightning instruments for over 35 years. He worked half time for the Alaska Volcano Observatory from 1991-2012 and was closely involved in monitoring efforts for eruptions at Spurr, Pavlof, Shishaldin, Augustine, Okmok, Kasatochi, and Redoubt volcanoes. He coordinates seismology research at USF, and presently supervises 3 graduate students and a Post-Doc. His research interests include: 1) studies of source and propagation effects for volcanic tremor, low-frequency events, and explosion earthquakes; 2) volcanic hazards assessments in Alaska, California, and Central America; 3) the mechanical behavior of volcanoes, including periodicity of eruptions, and the effects of earth tides, sea level variations, and tectonic stresses on triggering eruptive activity; 4) volcano infrasound; and 5) volcanic lightning. From July 1999 to July 2007 he served as Secretary-General for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

Hazel Rymer is presently the Dean and Director of Studies in the Faculty of Science and Profesor of Environmental Volcanology. Hazel has developed and championed the use of microgravity as a tool for monitoring active volcanoes. She has used this method to identify sub-surface processes at calderas in a state of unrest and at persistently active volcanoes and this has given geoscientists considerable insight into the range of mechanisms responsible for initiating and sustaining volcanic activity. The technique Hazel pioneered is now the standard method for gravity monitoring on volcanoes; it remains the only way to quantify the sub-surface mass changes that occur before, during and after eruptions.

John Stix has studied active volcanoes for 26 years, specializing in volcanic gases, eruption mechanisms, and the impact of volcanic activity. He teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in volcanology, natural hazards, and environmental geology. He also is involved in field courses, where he exposes students to hands-on observations of natural processes such as volcanic eruptions and floods. He has been involved in many training courses and workshops in Canada, the US, and Latin America to teach volcanology. He has collaborated extensively with colleagues in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Ecuador in volcano studies and volcanic hazards. From 2003 to 2010 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the Bulletin of Volcanology, the leading international journal related to the study of volcanoes and volcanism. He is currently part of an international team to drill into an active silicic magma body beneath Krafla volcano in Iceland.

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