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Geographic Information Science and Systems

Textbook
Presents principles and techniques of GI systems alongside the latest trends in data, software, societal exploitation of technologies, and industry developments
Covers applications of how GI systems are used to solve problems from the global to the local levels in a broad range of disciplines, and for government, business, and community initiatives.
Includes coverage of the latest Internet mapping interfaces and hand-held devices, and discusses their adoption and use in scientific investigation
Includes learning objectives and review boxes throughout each chapter

By: Paul A Longley (Author), Michael F Goodchild (Author), David J Maguire (Author), David W Rhind (Author)

496 pages, illustrations

John Wiley & Sons

Paperback | Apr 2015 | Edition: 4 | #223843 | ISBN-13: 9781118676950
Availability: Usually dispatched within 48 hours
NHBS Price: £159.99 $203/€191 approx

About this book

Effective use of today’s vast geographic information (GI) resources requires more than just powerful technology for problem solving. It requires science to help us understand the way the world works, and to help us devise effective procedures for making decisions. Three previous editions have established this text as a defining multidisciplinary treatment of the scientific principles that underpin the use of geographic information technologies for problem solving. This extensively revised and updated edition provides a guide to the enduring scientific principles and information systems that support effective use of today’s GI. It also provides a primer on essential methods for analysis of GI, and the ways in which effective management of GI informs policy and action.

New to this edition:
- Subtle change in the title reflects the evolution of the science of problem solving using GI technologies.
- Sets out the challenges posed by geographically referenced Big Data and Open Data in representing our world
- Discusses the emergence of data science and other new perspectives
- Assesses the implications of mobile computing and smartphone technologies for the development of citizen-centered science
- Reviews the ways in which open software is reshaping the analysis of geographic information
- Discusses new computationally-intensive analytic methods
- Suggests how geographic information science and systems help us to address the pervasive and dynamic challenges facing humanity


Related titles

See the previous edition

Geographic Information Systems and Science

The third edition of this bestselling textbook has been fully revised and...

NHBS Price: £157.99 $201/€189 approx
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Contents

Concise table of contents:

Foreword x
Dedication xi
Preface xii
List of Acronyms xiv
Introduction

Introduction
1 Geographic Information: Science, Systems, and Society 1

I. Princicples
2 The Nature of Geographic Data 33
3 Representing Geography 55
4 Georeferencing 77
5 Uncertainty 99

II. Techniques
6 GI System Software 128
7 Geographic Data Modeling 152
8 Data Collection 173
9 Creating and Maintaining Geographic Databases 194
10 The GeoWeb 217

III. Analysis
11 Cartography and Map Production 237
12 Geovisualization 266
13 Spatial Data Analysis 290
14 Spatial Analysis and Inference 319
15 Spatial Modeling with GI Systems 339

IV. Policy, Management, and Action
16 Managing GI Systems 358
17 Information and Decision Making 381
18 Navigating the Risks 411
19 Epilog: GISS in the Service of Humanity 435

Index 461


Detailed table of contents:

Foreword x
Dedication xi
Preface xii
List of Acronyms xiv

Introduction
1 Geographic Information: Science, Systems, and Society 1
1.1 Introduction: What Are GI Science and Systems, and Why Do They Matter? 1
1.2 Data, Information, Evidence, Knowledge, and Wisdom 9
1.3 GI Science and Systems 11
1.4 The Technology of Problem Solving 14
1.5 The Disciplinary Setting of GI Science and Systems (GISS) 16
1.6 GI Science and Spatial Thinking 30
1.7 GI Systems and Science in Society 31
Questions for Further Study 32
Further Reading 32

I. Principles

2 The Nature of Geographic Data 33
2.1 Introduction 33
2.2 The Fundamental Problem 34
2.3 Spatial Autocorrelation and Scale 37
2.4 Spatial Sampling 39
2.5 Sampling and VGI 42
2.6 Distance Decay 43
2.7 Measuring Distance Effects as Spatial Autocorrelation 48
2.8 Taming Geographic Monsters 51
2.9 Induction and Deduction and How It All Comes Together 53
Questions for Further Study 54
Further Reading 54

3 Representing Geography 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Digital Representation 57
3.3 Representation of What and for Whom? 58
3.4 The Fundamental Problem 61
3.5 Discrete Objects and Continuous Fields 62
3.6 Rasters and Vectors 66
3.7 The Paper Map 69
3.8 Generalization 71
3.9 Conclusion 76
Questions for Further Study 76
Further Reading 76

4 Georeferencing 77
4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Place-Names and Points of Interest 80
4.3 Postal Addresses and Postal Codes 82
4.4 IP Addresses 84
4.5 Linear Referencing Systems 84
4.6 Cadasters and the U.S. Public Land Survey System 85
4.7 Measuring the Earth: Latitude and Longitude 86
4.8 Projections and Coordinates 88
4.9 Measuring Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation: GPS 94
4.10 Converting Georeferences 95
4.11 Geotagging and Mashups 96
4.12 Georegistration 96
4.13 Summary 98
Questions for Further Study 98
Further Reading 98

5 Uncertainty 99
5.1 Introduction 99
5.2 U1: Uncertainty in the Conception of Geographic Phenomena 101
5.3 U2: Further Uncertainty in the Representation of Geographic Phenomena 111
5.4 U3: Further Uncertainty in the Analysis of Geographic Phenomena 117
5.5 Consolidation 126
Questions for Further Study 127
Further Reading 127

II. Techniques

6 GI System Software 128
6.1 Introduction 128
6.2 The Evolution of GI System Software 129
6.3 Architecture of GI System Software 131
6.4 Building GI Software Systems 136
6.5 GI Software Vendors 137
6.6 Types of GI Systems 140
6.7 Conclusion 150
Questions for Further Study 151
Further Reading 151

7 Geographic Data Modeling 152
7.1 Introduction 152
7.2 GI Data Models 154
7.3 Example of a Water-Facility Object Data Model 168
7.4 Geographic Data Modeling in Practice 170
Questions for Further Study 172
Further Reading 172

8 Data Collection 173
8.1 Introduction 173
8.2 Primary Geographic Data Capture 175
8.3 Secondary Geographic Data Capture 181
8.4 Obtaining Data from External Sources (Data Transfer) 187
8.5 Capturing Attribute Data 190
8.6 Citizen-Centric Web-Based Data Collection 190
8.7 Managing a Data Collection Project 191
Questions for Further Study 193
Further Reading 193

9 Creating and Maintaining Geographic Databases 194
9.1 Introduction 194
9.2 Database Management Systems 195
9.3 Storing Data in DBMS Tables 198
9.4 SQL 201
9.5 Geographic Database Types and Functions 202
9.6 Geographic Database Design 205
9.7 Structuring Geographic Information 206
9.8 Editing and Data Maintenance 212
9.9 Multiuser Editing of Continuous Databases 213
9.10 Conclusion 214
Questions for Further Study 216
Further Reading 216

10 The GeoWeb 217
10.1 Introduction 217
10.2 Distributing the Data 222
10.3 The Mobile User 227
10.4 Distributing the Software: GI Services 233
10.5 Prospects 235
Questions for Further Study 236
Further Reading 236

III. Analysis

11 Cartography and Map Production 237
11.1 Introduction 237
11.2 Maps and Cartography 241
11.3 Principles of Map Design 246
11.4 Map Series 257
11.5 Applications 261
11.6 Conclusion 265
Questions for Further Study 265
Further Reading 265

12 Geovisualization 266
12.1 Introduction: Uses, Users, Messages, and Media 266
12.2 Geovisualization, Spatial Query, and User Interaction 268
12.3 Geovisualization and Transformation 274
12.4 Participation, Interaction, Augmentation, and Dynamic Representation 280
12.5 Consolidation 288
Questions for Further Study 289
Further Reading 289

13 Spatial Data Analysis 290
13.1 Introduction: What Is Spatial Analysis? 290
13.2 Analysis Based on Location 295
13.3 Analysis Based on Distance 304
13.4 Conclusion 317
Questions for Further Study 318
Further Reading 318

14 Spatial Analysis and Inference 319
14.1 The Purpose of Area-Based Analyses 319
14.2 Centrality 321
14.3 Analysis of Surfaces 324
14.4 Design 329
14.5 Hypothesis Testing 334
14.6 Conclusion 337
Questions for Further Study 338
Further Reading 338

15 Spatial Modeling with GI Systems 339
15.1 Introduction 339
15.2 Types of Models 343
15.3 Technology for Modeling 351
15.4 Multicriteria Methods 352
15.5 Accuracy and Validity: Testing the Model 354
15.6 Conclusion 356
Questions for Further Study 357
Further Reading 357

IV. Policy, Management, and Action

16 Managing GI Systems 358
16.1 Introduction 359
16.2 Managing Risk 359
16.3 The Case for the GI System: ROI 360
16.4 The Process of Developing a Sustainable GI System 366
16.5 Sustaining a GI System—The People and Their Competences 378
16.6 Conclusions 380
Questions for Further Study 380
Further Reading 380

17 Information and Decision Making 381
17.1 Why We Need Information 381
17.2 Information as Infrastructure 386
17.3 Different Forms of GI 391
17.4 Open Data and Open Government 404
17.5 Example of an Information Infrastructure: The Military 406
17.6 Conclusions 409
Questions for Further Study 410
Further Reading 410

18 Navigating the Risks 411
18.1 Clashes Between Scientists and the Judiciary 412
18.2 Business Models for GI-Related Enterprises 412
18.3 Legal and Regulatory Constraints 414
18.4 Privacy and GI Systems 421
18.5 Public Trust, Ethics, and Coping with the Media 424
18.6 Partnerships, Up-Scaling Activities, and Risk Mitigation 426
18.7 Coping with Spatial Stupidity 432
18.8 Conclusions 433
Questions for Further Study 434
Further Reading 434

19 Epilog: GISS in the Service of Humanity 435
19.1 GISS, the Active Citizen, and Citizen Scientists 435
19.2 Context: Our Differentiated World 437
19.3 Context: Our Interdependent World 440
19.4 The Process 441
19.5 The Grand Challenges 443
19.6 Grand Challenges Whose Effects We Can Help to Ameliorate 445
19.7 Conclusions 459
Questions For Further Study 460
Further Reading 460

Index 461


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