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Darwin, Geodynamics and Extreme Waves

Examines the effects of catastrophic amplification of vertically induced waves
Uses Charles Darwin’s important geophysical research as a starting point
Provides insights into the interaction between earthquakes with volcanoes, seaquake, and tsunami formation

By: Sh U Galiev (Author)

343 pages, 32 colour & 225 b/w illustrations


Hardback | Jul 2015 | #223850 | ISBN-13: 9783319169934
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £89.99 $110/€101 approx

About this book

Darwin, Geodynamics and Extreme Waves examines the reasons behind the resonant amplification of seismic and ocean waves that have the capacity to destroy cities and ocean-going vessels. Using Charles Darwin's important geophysical research as a starting point, it provides insights into the interaction between earthquakes with volcanoes, seaquake, and tsunami formation.

In particular, the author details the observations that Darwin made on a powerful earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1835, noting how the famous naturalist and geologist used the concept of earthquake-induced vertical shock to explain the event's devastating impact. Darwin, Geodynamics and Extreme Waves then goes on to show how Darwin's concept relates to the catastrophic results of the shallow quakes that recently destroyed Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 2010) and severely damaged Christchurch (New Zealand, 2011).

In addition, the author asks whether Darwin's ideas are endorsed by the discoveries of modern science and whether the results of destructive earthquakes can be modeled using strongly nonlinear wave equations. Coverage also proposes that similar equations can be used to simulate the dynamics of many objects on the surface of the Earth, and to model the origin of the Universe, dark matter, and dark energy as strongly nonlinear wave phenomena.

Darwin, Geodynamics and Extreme Waves will appeal to students as well as researchers and engineers in geophysics, seismology, nonlinear wave studies, cosmology, physical oceanography, and ocean and coastal engineering. It will also be of use to those who are interested in the phenomena of natural catastrophes as well as those who want to learn more about the life and work of Charles Darwin.


Prologue: a few notes about Charles Darwin, his research and the contents of the book

1. Introduction
1.1. Extreme vertical dynamics of the land surface during earthquakes
1.2. Features of destruction of weakly-cohesive materials by extreme vertical dynamics
1.3. Instability of the land surface and a connection of seismic and volcanic phenomena

2. Extracts from Darwin's publications, and his basic geophysical ideas
2.1. Extracts from Darwin's Journal of Researches
2.1.1. The great shock
2.1.2. The great waves
2.1.3. Paroxysmal vertical movement and volcanoes
2.2. Extracts from Darwin's Autobiographies
2.3. Darwin on earthquakes, land elevation, volcanic eruptions and catastrophic ocean waves
2.3.1. The 1835 Chilean earthquake as a part of one great phenomenon
2.3.2. The Earth as a global seismic system
2.3.3. The earthquake-induced elevation of the land
2.3.4. The topographical effect
2.3.5. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions
2.3.6. Tsunami, huge oceanic waves and resonant amplification of seismic waves in sediment layers

3. Darwin's reports on catastrophic natural phenomena and modern science: topographic effect and local circumstances
3.1. Ground elevation and the strongly-nonlinear topographic effect
3.1.1. Some physical mechanisms for ground subsidence and lift
3.1.2. Loosening of sediments due to vibrations
3.1.3. Loosening of surface layers due to strongly-nonlinear wave phenomena
3.1.4. Topographical effect: extreme dynamics of Tarzana hill
3.1.5. Topographical effects: uplift and fissure of the top of a ridge
3.1.6. Topographical effect: uplift and fissure of island surfaces
3.2. Darwin's ideas about an intimate connection between volcanic and elevatory forces
3.2.1. Earthquake-induced ground elevation as a triggering mechanism for large-scale volcanic eruptions
3.2.2. Surface waves in the crater and short-time volcanic eruptions
3.2.3. Short-time eruptions from craters
3.2.4. Discussion of earthquake-induced volcanic eruptions
3.3. Amplification of the earthquake convulsion. Effects of the geology and relief
3.4. Darwin on avalanches as a cause of tsunamis
3.5. Darwin on transient cavitation within volcanic bombs
3.6. Darwin on his theories of a mountain formation
3.7 Dynamic instability and ... a vorticose movement ... within the surface layers

4. Darwin's reports on catastrophic natural phenomena and modern science: seaquake-induced waves, atomization and cavitation
4.1. Darwin's description of tsunamis generated by coastal earthquakes
4.1.1. Effect of the coast bottom on the generation of a catastrophic tsunami
4.1.2. Effect of the coast bottom on the ocean ebb and the steep front of a tsunami
4.1.3. Effects of the bottom friction
4.2. Seaquakes, transient cavitation, internal and surface waves
4.2.1. Seaquakes and cavitation
4.2.2. Seaquakes and internal waves
4.2.3. Strongly-nonlinear resonant waves and surface atomization: experiments
4.2.4. Strongly-nonlinear resonant waves and elastica forms
4.2.5. Strongly-nonlinear resonant waves, drops, bubbles and craters: calculations
4.3. Evolution of vertically-induced waves on liquid surface: from jets to breakers and vibration solitons
4.4. Solitons and oscillons
4.5. Evolution of vertically-induced granular waves: from jets to breakers and vibration solitons

5. Extreme wave/ship interaction
5.1. Extreme (catastrophic) ocean waves
5.2. Reasons for catastrophic ocean wave generation
5.2.1. Underwater topographies and topographic resonance
5.2.2. Discussion of some ocean resonances
5.3 Results of modelling of catastrophic ocean waves
5.3.1. Long waves
5.3.2. Short waves
5.4. The generation of catastrophic ocean waves
5.4.1. Lagrangian description of extreme ocean waves and a depth-average model
5.4.2. Quadratic and cubic -nonlinear equations for gravity waves in deep ocean
5.4.3. Solitary ocean waves
5.4.4. Catastrophic amplification of harmonic ocean waves
5.4.5. Nonlinear dispersive relation and extreme waves
5.5. Surface-breaking waves, underwater explosions and hull cavitation
5.5.1. Effects of the breaking
5.5.2. Underwater explosions and hull cavitation: descriptions
5.5.3. Underwater explosions and hull cavitation: experiments
5.6. Experimental studies of hull cavitation
5.6.1. Elastic plate/underwater wave interaction
5.6.2. Elastoplastic plate/underwater wave interaction
5.7. Results of modelling of wave/plate interaction
5.7.1. Effects of deformability
5.7.2 Effects of cavitation
5.7.3. Effects of plasticity

6. Modelling of extreme waves in natural resonators: from gravity waves to the origin of the Universe
6.1 Governing relations describing extreme seismic waves in certain natural resonators
6.1.1. One-dimensional highly nonlinear wave equation and the nonlinear generalization of d'Alembert's solution
6.1.2. The equations of continuity and state for different waves and materials
6.1.3. Experimental modelling of seismic waves in natural resonators
6.2. Resonant surface gravity waves
6.3. Resonant waves in closed, gas-filled tubes as a model of vertical earthquake-induced body waves
6.4. Extreme waves in semi-open resonators: ocean, sediment layers and volcano conduits
6.5. Resonant coastal waves
6.6. The experiments of Sir Geoffrey Taylor
6.7. The introduction and versions of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation (NKGE)
6.8. A landscape of the scalar potential
6.9. The tunnelling of the energy bubble through the potential wall
6.9.1. Instant quantum action
6.9.2. Finite time quantum action
6.9.3. Transresonant tunnelling
6.9.4. The fragmentation of multidimensional space-time during the tunnelling
6.10. The origin of the particles of energy and matter
6.10.1. Boundary conditions PHI = 0 at xi = 0;L
6.10.2. Boundary conditions at deltaPHI/deltaxi = 0 at xi = 0;L
6.11. Supporting experimental results: gravity waves
6.12. The origin of the Universe
6.13. The evolution of the Universe after the tunnelling
6.14. Resume of the sections 6.7-6.13
6.15. Discussion and comments

7. Final comments on Charles Darwin's geophysical observations
7.1. Darwin's discoveries and the instability of Nature
7.2. Catastrophic earthquakes and tsunamis of recent years
7.3. Closing remarks

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