Books  Animal & General Biology  Animals: Veterinary Science 

Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology

Handbook / Manual

By: Terry W Campbell (Author)

424 pages, illustrations

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Mar 2015 | Edition: 4 | #224203 | ISBN-13: 9781118611272
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £93.99 $119/€112 approx

About this book

Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, Fourth Edition updates the most comprehensive reference available on exotic animal hematology and cytology of all major species.

- Acts as both an atlas and a text, offering high-quality photographs and step-by-step descriptions of techniques associated with preparing and interpreting hematology and cytology samples
- Presents complete information on hematology and cytology in a wide range of exotic species, including small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish
- Includes more than 700 high-quality color photographs, now with sizing bars
- Takes a new disease-based structure for improved ease of use
- Provides straightforward step-by-step descriptions of sample preparation and interpretation


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Contents

Concise table of contents:

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Scientific Names Used in Text xv


SECTION I EVALUATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILMS AND HEMIC CYTOLOGY
1. Peripheral Blood of Mammals 3
2. Peripheral Blood of Birds 37
3. Peripheral Blood of Reptiles 67
4. Peripheral Blood of Amphibians 89
5. Peripheral Blood of Fish 97
6. Blood Parasites 115

SECTION II BLOOD SAMPLE AND BONE MARROW COLLECTION
7. Bone Marrow/Hematopoiesis 131
8. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Small Mammals 157
9. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Birds 165
10. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Reptiles 173
11. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Amphibians 181
12. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Fish 183

SECTION III HEMATOLOGIC TECHNIQUES
13. Bone Marrow Collection and Evaluation 187

SECTION IV CYTODIAGNOSIS
14. Hematologic Techniques in Lower Vertebrates 199
15. Normal Mammalian Cytology 209
16. Normal Avian Cytology 219
17. Normal Herptile (Reptiles and Amphibian) Cytology 229
18. The Cytology of Inflammation 235
19. The Cytology of Hyperplasia/Benign Neoplasia 267
20. The Cytology of Malignant Neoplasia 277
21. Effusions 309

SECTION V SAMPLE COLLECTION FOR CYTOLOGY
22. Infectious Agents 323

SECTION VI WET MOUNT MICROSCOPY OF FISH
23. Cytology Sampling Techniques and Evaluation 345
24. Wet Mount Microscopy in Fish 357
25. Wet-Mount Sampling Techniques in Fish 373

Appendices 377
Index 393


Detailed table of contents:

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Scientific Names Used in Text xv

SECTION I EVALUATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILMS AND HEMIC CYTOLOGY

1. Peripheral Blood of Mammals 3
Normal Hemic Cells 3
Erythrocytes 3
Leukocytes 4
Platelets 8
Evaluation of Mammalian Erythrocytes 16
Inflammatory Leukogram in Mammals 25
Neutrophilia of Excitement and Stress in Mammals 28
Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Mammals 30
Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis in Mammals 32
References 33

2. Peripheral Blood of Birds 37
Evaluation of Avian Erythrocytes 37
Anemia in Birds 40
Hypochromasia 44
Avian Erythrocytosis 44
Evaluation of Avian Leukocytes 44
Inflammatory Leukogram in Birds 51
Heterophilia of Excitement and Stress in Birds 54
Leukopenia in Birds 55
Heteropenia 56
Lymphopenia 56
Monocytosis in Birds 56
Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Birds 57
Thrombocytopenia 58
Thrombocytosis 58
Normal Variations in the Hemogram of Birds 58
References 60

3. Peripheral Blood of Reptiles 67
Evaluation of Reptilian Erythrocytes and Anemia 67
Inclusion Body Disease 71
Leukocytes and Inflammatory in Reptiles 71
Heterophils 72
Eosinophils 73
Basophils 73
Lymphocytes 73
Monocytes 73
Reference Values 75
Inflammation 77
Considerations in the Interpretation of the Reptilian Hemogram 79
Leukemia 79
Eosinophilia in Reptiles 79
Basophilia in Reptiles 79
Lymphocytosis and Lymphopenia in Reptiles 82
Monocytosis in Reptiles 84
Reptile Thrombocytes 85
References 85

4. Peripheral Blood of Amphibians 89
Evaluation of Amphibian Erythrocytes 89
Evaluation of Amphibian Leukocytes 90
Evaluation of Amphibian Thrombocytes 93
References 94

5. Peripheral Blood of Fish 97
Evaluation of Fish Erythrocytes 97
Evaluation of Fish Leukocytes 101
Leukocytes of Commonly Studied Teleost Fish 108
Evaluation of Fish Thrombocytes and Hemostasis 111
References 112

6. Blood Parasites 115
Avian Blood Parasites 115
Reptile Blood Parasites 122
Amphibian Blood Parasites 125
Fish Blood Parasites 125
References 127

7. Bone Marrow/Hematopoiesis 131
Mammalian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 131
Avian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 138
Avian Hematopoietic Tissue Other Than Bone Marrow 145
Reptile Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 145
Amphibian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 148
Piscine Hematopoiesis 149
References 151

SECTION II BLOOD SAMPLE AND BONE MARROW COLLECTION

8. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Small Mammals 157
Small Rodents: Mice (Mus musculus) Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) 157
Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 158
Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) 160
Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps) 160
Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) 161
Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) 161
Other Methods of Blood Collection 162
Blood Sample Preparation 163
References 163

9. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Birds 165
Restraint 165
Blood Collection 165
References 172

10. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Reptiles 173
References 178

11. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Amphibians 181
References 182

12. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Fish 183
References 185

13. Bone Marrow Collection and Evaluation 187
Mammals 187
Birds 190
Reptiles 194
References 195

SECTION III HEMATOLOGIC TECHNIQUES

14. Hematologic Techniques in Lower Vertebrates 199
Evaluation of Erythrocytes 199
Evaluation of Leukocytes 202
Evaluation of Thrombocytes 204
References 204

SECTION IV CYTODIAGNOSIS

15. Normal Mammalian Cytology 209
The Digestive Tract 209
The Respiratory Tract 212
The Skin 212
The Eye 214
Joint Fluid 214
Lymph Nodes 215
Spleen 216
Liver 216
Kidney 217
References 217

16. Normal Avian Cytology 219
The Digestive Tract 219
Respiratory Tract 220
The Skin 221
The Eye 223
Joint Fluid 224
Lymphoid Tissue 225
Liver 226
Kidney 227
References 227

17. Normal Herptile (Reptiles and Amphibian) Cytology 229
The Digestive Tract 229
Respiratory Tract 229
The Skin 232
References 233

18. The Cytology of Inflammation 235
Neutrophilic/Heterophilic Inflammation of Mammals 235
Heterophilic Inflammation of Birds and Reptiles 237
Septic Inflammation 240
Mixed Cell Inflammation 240
Macrophagic Inflammation 240
Eosinophilic Inflammation 243
Inflammatory Lesions of the Alimentary Tract 244
Inflammation of the Respiratory Tract 247
Inflammation of the Skin 252
Inflammation of Synovial Joints 253
Inflammation of Lymphoid Tissue 257
Inflammation of the Liver 258
Ophthalmic Inflammation 259
Inflammation of Fish 262
References 263

19. The Cytology of Hyperplasia/Benign Neoplasia 267
Adipose 267
Hepatic Lipidosis 268
Epidermal Cyst 270
Sebaceous Cysts 271
Feather Cysts 271
Papillomas 271
Papillomatosis 272
Histiocytoma 272
Chordomas 273
Leiomyoma 273
Squamous Hyperplasia/Metaplasia 273
Lymphoid Hyperplasia 274
Thyroid Hyperplasia 274
References 274

20. The Cytology of Malignant Neoplasia 277
General Cellular Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277
Cytoplasmic Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277
Nuclear Features of Malignant Neoplasia 278
Structural Features of Malignant Neoplasia 280
Cellular Arrangements 291
Lower Vertebrates (Birds Reptiles and Amphibians) 292
Neoplasia of the Gastrointestinal Tract 293
Neoplasia of the Respiratory Tract 293
Cutaneous Neoplasms 294
Ocular Neoplasia 298
Neoplasms of Joints and Bone 298
Liver Neoplasms 298
Renal Neoplasms 298
Reproductive Tract Neoplasia 300
Neoplasia of Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) 300
Neoplasia of African Pygmy Hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) 300
Malignant Neoplasia in Fish 301
References 302

21. Effusions 309
Transudate 310
Modified Transudates 310
Exudative Effusion 311
Hemorrhagic and Chylous Effusion 312
Malignant Effusion 315
Hemorrhagic Exudative and Malignant Effusions of Lower Vertebrates 316
Accidental Aspiration of the Liver 318
Synovial Cyst 319
Cutaneous Cysts 320
Mucocele 320
References 320

22. Infectious Agents 323
Avian Pox 323
Mycoplasmosis 323
Clostridium 323
Campylobacter 324
Spirochetes 326
Chlamydophila/Chlamydia 326
Mycobacterium 328
Candidiasis 330
Cryptococcus neoformans 331
Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in Birds 331
Saccharomyces Yeast in Rabbits 332
Aspergillosis 332
Chytridiomycosis 333
Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii 334
Saprolegniasis 334
Trichomoniasis 335
Cryptosporidiosis 336
Giardia 338
References 338

SECTION V SAMPLE COLLECTION FOR CYTOLOGY

23. Cytology Sampling Techniques and Evaluation 345
Köhler Illumination 345
Sample Collection 346
Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy 346
Contact Smears (Touch Imprints or Impression Smears) and Squash Preparations (Compression Preparations) 347
Fluid Samples 348
Sample Preparation 350
Evaluation of the Cytologic Sample 351
Basic Cytologic Responses 353
References 353

SECTION VI WET MOUNT MICROSCOPY OF FISH

24. Wet Mount Microscopy in Fish 357
Gill Biopsies 357
Mucus Smears and Fin Biopsies 357
Ciliate Protozoa 359
Flagellate Protozoa 362
Myxozoa 365
Microsporidians 367
Monogeneans 367
Digenean Trematodes 369
Turbellarians 369
Crustaceans 370
Nematodes 371
References 371

25. Wet-Mount Sampling Techniques in Fish 373
Sampling Techniques 373
Mucus Smear 373
Fin Biopsy 374
Gill Biopsy 374
Fecal Sample 375
References 375

Appendices 377
A. Stains and Solutions Used in Hematology and Cytology 377
Acid-Fast Stain 377
Gram’s Stain 377
Macchiavello’s Stain 378
Modified Giménez Stain 378
New Methylene Blue Stain 378
Standard Natt and Herrick’s Solution and Stain 379
Elasmobranch-Modified Natt and Herrick’s Solution and Stain 379
Elasmobranch-Modified Heparin–EDTA 380
Elasmobranch-Modified ACD Solution 380
Quick or Stat Stains 380
Sudan III and Sudan IV Stains 381
Wright’s Stain 381
Wright–Giemsa Stain 381
B. Hematologic Values 383

Index 393


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