304 pages, 14 b/w photos, 118 b/w illustrations, 30 tables
Protected areas are at the centre of nature-based tourism, which is increasingly popular across the world. As visitor numbers increase, so does awareness of the harmful effects that large crowds may have on both natural resources and individuals' recreational experience. Sustainable Transportation in Natural and Protected Areas considers the challenge of transportation to and within natural and protected areas, the improvement of which has already been recognised as having great potential for mitigating the environmental impacts of ecotourism.
While several books have focused considerable attention to the management of protected areas in general, little has been said about the specific issue of sustainable transport, an emerging trend that is already reshaping visitation patterns in natural settings. Sustainable Transportation in Natural and Protected Areas provides current knowledge on issues associated with the transportation of visitors in natural and protected areas, and a comprehensive overview of the technical and strategic options available to tackle these issues.
Sustainable Transportation in Natural and Protected Areas approaches the subject via three main topics: preferences, or the visitors' attitudes towards transportation; practices, where current approaches are assessed through examples and case-studies of successful experiences and methodologies from around the world; and policies, where suggestions and recommendations are put forward for both local scale strategies and broad-scale regulatory action with global relevance. Contributors include academics in the field of natural resource management and tourism, with extensive experience in protected area management and active partnerships with natural park administrations.
1. Introduction Francesco Orsi
Part 1: Concepts and Definitions
2. Transportation in Natural and Protected Areas: Sustainability Requisites Francesco Orsi
3. Sustainable Transportation in Natural Settings: Comparing Different Modes Francesco Orsi
Part 2: Preferences - Attitudes towards Sustainable Transportation
4. Scheduled Bus Use in Natural and Protected Areas: Visitor Preferences and Service Design Issues Jo Guiver, Nick Davies and Richard Weston
5. From Automobiles to Alternatives: On the Use of Intelligent Transportation Systems to Encourage Shuttle Use Kourtney K. Collum and John J. Daigle
6. Park Visitor and Gateway Community Perceptions of Mandatory Shuttle Buses Joshua D. Marquit and Britton L. Mace
7. Sustainable Mobility within Natural Areas: the Perspectives of Persons with Disabilities Brent Lovelock
Part 3: Practices - Experiences around the World
8. Managing Sustainable Mobility in Natural Areas: the Case of South Tyrol (Italy) Anna Scuttari and Maria Della Lucia
9. On-demand Transport Systems to Remote Natural Areas: The Swiss Case of Bus Alpin and AlpenTaxi Roger Sonderegger and Widar von Arx
10. Reducing Visitor Car Use in Protected Areas: a Market Segmentation Approach to Secure Environmental and Economic Benefits Davina Stanford
11. Cycle Tourism Development in the Peak District National Park, United Kingdom Richard Weston, Nick Davies and Jo Guiver
12. Estimating the Effects of "Carrot and Stick" Measures on Travel Mode Choices to a Popular Hiking Area in the Dolomites (Italy) Francesco Orsi and Davide Geneletti
13. Alternative Transportation Practice in U.S. National Parks: A Systematic-wide Transit Inventory and Exploration of Opportunities and Challenges going into the Future John J. Daigle
14. Participatory Planning for the Definition of Sustainable Mobility Strategies in Small Islands: A Case Study in San Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal) Artur Gil, Catarina Fonseca and Helena Calado
15. Achieving a Balance between Trail Conservation and Road Development in Bhutan Taiichi Ito
16. Case Studies: Lessons Learned Francesco Orsi
Part 4: Policies - Strategies and Policies for Sustainable Transportation
17. From Conventional to Sustainable Transportation Management in National Parks Robert Manning, Christopher Monz, Jeffrey Hallo, Steven Lawson and Peter Newman
18. Identifying Key Factors for the Successful Provision of Public Transport for Tourism Andreas Kagermeier and Werner Gronau
19. Increasing the Economic Feasibility of Public Transport Supply in Natural Areas Werner Gronau and Andreas Kagermeier
20. Elements that Encourage Bicycling and Walking To and Within Natural Areas Natalie Villwock-Witte
21. Helping Gateway Communities Embrace Alternative Transportation Anne Dunning
22. Sustainable Transportation in Natural Settings: Looking Ahead Francesco Orsi
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Francesco Orsi is Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography at Kansas State University, USA. Previously he was a post-doctoral researcher in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Trento, Italy.