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Ethnopharmacology

Series: ULLA Postgraduate Pharmacy Series

By: Michael Heinrich (Editor), Anna K Jäger (Editor)

431 pages, b/w illustrations, tables

Wiley-Blackwell

Hardback | Oct 2015 | #225635 | ISBN-13: 9781118930748
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £69.99 $89/€84 approx

About this book

Ethnopharmacology is one of the world's fastest-growing scientific disciplines encompassing a diverse range of subjects. It links natural sciences research on medicinal, aromatic and toxic plants with socio-cultural studies and has often been associated with the development of new drugs. The Editors of Ethnopharmacology have assembled an international team of renowned contributors to provide a critical synthesis of the substantial body of new knowledge and evidence on the subject that has emerged over the past decade.

Divided into three parts, Ethnopharmacology begins with an overview of the subject including a brief history, ethnopharmacological methods, the role of intellectual property protection, key analytical approaches, the role of ethnopharmacology in primary/secondary education and links to biodiversity and ecological research. Part two looks at ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions including central nervous system disorders, cancer, bone and joint health and parasitic diseases. The final part is devoted to regional perspectives covering all continents, providing a state-of-the-art assessment of the status of ethnopharmacological research globally.

- A comprehensive, critical synthesis of the latest developments in ethnopharmacology
- Includes a section devoted to ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions
- Contributions are from leading international experts in the field.

This timely book will prove invaluable for researchers and students across a range of subjects including ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, medicinal plant research and natural products research.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Contributors xvii
Series Foreword xxi
Preface xxiii
Abbreviations xxvii

Ethnopharmacology: The Fundamental Challenges
1 Ethnopharmacology: A Short History of a Multidisciplinary Field of Research 3
2 Medicinal Plant Research: A Reflection on Translational Tasks 11
3 The Anthropology of Ethnopharmacology 17
4 Quantitative and Comparative Methods in Ethnopharmacology 29
5 Biodiversity, Conservation and Ethnopharmacology 41
6 Ecopharmacognosy 53
7 NMR-based Metabolomics and Hyphenated NMR Techniques: A Perfect Match in Natural Products Research 63
8 New Medicines Based On Traditional Knowledge: Indigenous and Intellectual Property Rights from an Ethnopharmacological Perspective 75
9 Ethnopharmacology and Intellectual Property Rights 87
10 Ethnopharmacology in Elementary, Primary and Secondary Education: Current
11 Anti-infective Agents: The Example of Antibacterial Drug Leads 111
12 Searching for New Treatments of Malaria 123
13 CNS Disorders 135
14 Respiratory Conditions 147
15 Can there be an Ethnopharmacology of Inflammation? 159
16 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors and Downstream Signalling Pathways as Cancer Treatment Targets for Medicinal Plants 169
17 From Ethnopharmacological Field Study to Phytochemistry and Preclinical Research: The Example of Ghanaian Medicinal Plants for Improved Wound Healing 179
18 Gynaecological, Andrological and Urological Problems: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 199
19 Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Bone and Joint Health 213
20 Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 227
21 The Ethnopharmacology of the Food–Medicine Interface: The Example of Marketing Traditional Products in Europe 239
22 Retrospective Treatment-Outcome as a Method of Collecting Clinical Data in Ethnopharmacological Surveys 251

Ethnopharmacology: Regional Perspectives
23 Ethnopharmacology in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current Trends and Future Perspectives 265
24 Ethnopharmacology and Integrative Medicine: An Indian Perspective 279
25 Chinese Medicine: Contentions and Global Complexities 293
26 Chinese Medicinal Processing: A Characteristic Aspect of the Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine 303
27 A South-East Asian Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 317
28 Historical Approaches in Ethnopharmacology 333
29 Medical Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology of Europe 343
30 Ethnopharmacology in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: ‘The Sun Rises from the East, but Shines on the Eastern Mediterranean’ 357
31 Ethnopharmacology in Australia and Oceania 365
32 Ethnopharmacology in Central and South America 379
33 Perspectives on Ethnopharmacology in Mexico 393
34 Encounters with Elephants: A Personal Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 405

References 411
Index 415


Detailed table of contents:

Contributors xvii
Series Foreword xxi
Preface xxiii
Abbreviations xxvii

Ethnopharmacology: The Fundamental Challenges

1 Ethnopharmacology: A Short History of a Multidisciplinary Field of Research 3
Michael Heinrich
1.1 Introduction 3
Acknowledgements 8
References 8

2 Medicinal Plant Research: A Reflection on Translational Tasks 11
Anna K Jäger
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Translational research: preclinical research 12
2.3 Translational research: clinical research 13
2.4 Reaching the patient 14
2.5 A ‘developed’ traditional medicine system 14
References 16

3 The Anthropology of Ethnopharmacology 17
Ina Vandebroek and Daniel E. Moerman
3.1 Introduction 17
3.2 Primary example: Traditional medicine in New York City 18
3.3 An example from ancient Roman architecture 22
3.4 An example from native North America 23
3.5 Comparative ethnobotany 24
3.6 Conclusions 26
References 27

4 Quantitative and Comparative Methods in Ethnopharmacology 29
Marco Leonti and Caroline S. Weckerle
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Research questions 31
4.3 Field research 33
4.4 Analyzing the data 34
4.5 Pharmacological research 35
4.6 Contextualization 36
4.7 Conclusion 37
References 37

5 Biodiversity, Conservation and Ethnopharmacology 41
Vernon H. Heywood
5.1 Introduction 41
5.2 Changing attitudes to the ownership of biodiversity 42
5.3 Medicinal and aromatic plants as resources 43
5.4 How many species? 44
5.5 Chemical diversity 45
5.6 Wild harvesting and over-collection 45
5.7 Medicinal plant conservation 46
5.8 Conservation approaches 46
5.9 Protected areas 47
5.10 Community conservation 47
5.11 Genetic conservation 47
5.12 Cultivation 48
5.13 Conclusions 48
References 49

6 Ecopharmacognosy 53
Geoffrey A. Cordell
6.1 Introduction 53
6.2 Sustainable medicines and pharmacognosy 54
6.3 Ecopharmacognosy: background 55
6.4 Ecopharmacognosy practices 55
6.5 Conclusions 60
Acknowledgements 60
References 60

7 NMR-based Metabolomics and Hyphenated NMR Techniques: A Perfect Match in Natural Products Research 63
Joachim Møllesøe Vinther, Sileshi Gizachew Wubshet and Dan Staerk
7.1 Introduction 63
7.2 Metabolomics 64
7.3 Principles of NMR-based metabolomics 65
7.4 NMR-based metabolomics in natural products research 66
7.5 Hyphenated NMR techniques 68
7.6 Principle of HPLC-SPE-NMR 69
7.7 High-resolution bioassay-coupled HPLC-SPE-NMR 70
7.8 Combining metabolomics and hyphenated NMR techniques 71
7.9 Perspectives in ethnopharmacology 72
7.10 Conclusions 72
References 72

8 New Medicines Based On Traditional Knowledge: Indigenous and Intellectual Property Rights from an Ethnopharmacological Perspective 75
Michael Heinrich
8.1 Introduction 75
8.2 The legal framework 76
8.3 Industrial research in an ethnopharmacological context 77
8.4 Some case studies 79
8.5 Conclusions 83
Note 84
References 84

9 Ethnopharmacology and Intellectual Property Rights 87
Alan Hesketh
9.1 Introduction 87
9.2 Indigenous community rights and traditional knowledge 88
9.3 Identifying a partner 89
9.4 Hurdles in considering IP 91
9.5 Building an effective IP portfolio 91
9.6 The patentability of products of nature 93
9.7 Conclusion 95
References 95

10 Ethnopharmacology in Elementary, Primary and Secondary Education: Current Perspectives and Future Prospects 97
Alonso Verde, Diego Rivera, José Ramón Vallejo, José Fajardo, Concepción Obón and Arturo Valdés
10.1 Introduction 97
10.2 Ethnopharmacology: a multidisciplinary subject for education 99
10.3 Developing an ethnopharmacological curriculum: some strategies 101
10.4 Conclusions 104
References 105

The Pharmacological Angle
11 Anti-infective Agents: The Example of Antibacterial Drug Leads 111
Maíra Bidart de Macedo, Sofie Clais, Ellen Lanckacker, Louis Maes, Emerson Silva Lima and Paul Cos
11.1 Introduction 111
11.2 Bacterial resistance 112
11.3 Plant-derived antibacterial agents 112
11.4 Basic requirements for successful antimicrobial drug discovery (Cos et al., 2006) 118
11.5 Conclusion 119
References 120

12 Searching for New Treatments of Malaria 123
Colin W. Wright
12.1 Introduction 123
12.2 Traditional herbal remedies as a source of antimalarial lead compounds 123
12.3 Developments from established antimalarials 126
12.4 Non-traditional medicine sources of potential antimalarials 127
12.5 Alternative strategies in the search for natural antimalarial compounds 129
12.6 Herbal preparations for the treatment of malaria 130
12.7 Conclusion and future prospects 132
References 132

13 CNS Disorders 135
Anna K Jäger
13.1 Introduction 135
13.2 Epilepsy 135
13.3 Depression and anxiety 137
13.4 Insomnia 139
13.5 Sedatives 139
13.6 Dementia 139
13.7 Conclusion 142
References 142

14 Respiratory Conditions 147
Adolfo Andrade-Cetto and Jorge García-Alvarez
14.1 Introduction 147
14.2 Case studies 151
14.3 Conclusions 155
Acknowledgments 156
References 156

15 Can there be an Ethnopharmacology of Inflammation? 159
Michael Heinrich and Anthony Booker
15.1 Introduction 159
15.2 Ethnopharmacology of inflammation: some examples 161
15.3 Conclusions 166
References 166

16 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors and Downstream Signalling Pathways as Cancer Treatment Targets for Medicinal Plants 169
Ean-Jeong Seo, Ching-Fen Wu, Henny J. Greten and Thomas Efferth
16.1 Role of epidermal growth factor receptors for cancer biology 169
16.2 Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signalling by phytochemicals and medicinal plants 171
16.3 Conclusions and perspectives 173
References 174

17 From Ethnopharmacological Field Study to Phytochemistry and Preclinical Research: The Example of Ghanaian Medicinal Plants for Improved Wound Healing 179
Andreas Hensel, Emelia Kisseih, Matthias Lechtenberg, Frank Petereit, Christian Agyare and Alex Asase
17.1 Introduction 179
17.2 Results 180
17.3 Conclusion 196
References 196

18 Gynaecological, Andrological and Urological Problems: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 199
Tinde van Andel, Hugo de Boer and Alexandra Towns
18.1 Introduction 199
18.2 Menstrual disorders 200
18.3 Postpartum use 201
18.4 Vaginal applications 202
18.5 Female infertility 204
18.6 Andrology 204
18.7 Urology 206
References 207

19 Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Bone and Joint Health 213
Elizabeth M. Williamson
19.1 Introduction 213
19.2 Current views of bone and joint disorders 214
19.3 Traditional views of bone disorders 216
19.4 Conclusions 224
References 224

20 Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders: An Ethnopharmacological Perspective 227
Adolfo Andrade Cetto
20.1 Introduction 227
20.2 Type-2 diabetes 228
20.3 Metabolic syndrome 230
20.4 Case studies 231
20.5 Conclusions 236
Acknowledgments 236
References 237

21 The Ethnopharmacology of the Food–Medicine Interface: The Example of Marketing Traditional Products in Europe 239
Gunter P. Eckert
21.1 Introduction 239
21.2 Medicinal products for human use 241
21.3 Food 243
21.4 Consumer protection - security and protection against fraud 245
21.5 Intended normal use: the distinction between medicinal products and foods 247
21.6 Conclusion 248
References 248

22 Retrospective Treatment-Outcome as a Method of Collecting Clinical Data in Ethnopharmacological Surveys 251
Bertrand Graz, Merlin Willcox and Elaine Elisabetsky
22.1 Introduction 251
22.2 Key concepts: clinical data, outcome and patient progress 252
22.3 Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of traditional medicines 253
22.4 The role of ethnopharmacologists and ethnobotanists 254
22.5 Collection of clinical data during ethnopharmacological field studies 255
22.6 Example of a method for gathering clinical data during field surveys 255
22.7 Conclusion: clinical data and field surveys for a positive impact on health 259
References 260

Ethnopharmacology: Regional Perspectives

23 Ethnopharmacology in Sub-Sahara Africa: Current Trends and Future Perspectives 265
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O. Aremu and Johannes van Staden
23.1 Introduction 265
23.2 Role of traditional medicine in Africa 266
23.3 Ethnopharmacological research in sub-Saharan Africa 267
23.4 Challenges of traditional medicine in Africa 269
23.5 Future perspectives 272
23.6 Conclusions 273
Acknowledgements 273
References 273

24 Ethnopharmacology and Integrative Medicine: An Indian Perspective 279
Pulok K. Mukherjee, Sushil K. Chaudhary, Shiv Bahadur and Pratip K. Debnath
24.1 Ethnopharmacology and the development of traditional medicine in India 279
24.2 Biological wealth and ancient wisdom 281
24.3 Indian systems of medicine 281
24.4 Ayurveda: the Indian system of medicine 282
24.5 Siddha 286
24.6 Unani 287
24.7 Traditional knowledge digital library 287
24.8 Integrated approaches for the development of Indian traditional medicine 288
24.9 Conclusion 289
Acknowledgements 290
References 290

25 Chinese Medicine: Contentions and Global Complexities 293
Anthony Booker
25.1 Introduction 293
25.2 Ancient concepts meet scientific understanding 294
25.3 Traditional and modern dosage forms and application 296
25.4 Medicinal plant production in China 296
25.5 Quality and safety 297
25.6 Aristolochic acids 298
25.7 Regulatory requirements 298
25.8 Training practitioners of TCM 299
25.9 Future prospects 300
References 301

26 Chinese Medicinal Processing: A Characteristic Aspect of the Ethnopharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine 303
Ping Guo, Eric Brand and Zhongzhen Zhao
26.1 Introduction 303
26.2 Definition, methods and historical changes in Chinese medicinal processing 304
26.3 Present state of Chinese medicinal processing 310
26.4 Prospect for future developments in Chinese medicinal processing 315
References 315

27 A South-East Asian Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 317
Pravit Akarasereenont, Marianne J.R. Datiles, Natchagorn Lumlerdkij, Harisun Yaakob, Jose M. Prieto and Michael Heinrich
27.1 Introduction 317
27.2 Ethnopharmacology in Thailand 319
27.3 Ethnopharmacology in Malaysia 322
27.4 Ethnopharmacology in Indonesia 325
27.5 Ethnopharmacology in the Philippines 326
27.6 Ethnopharmacology in Vietnam 328
27.7 Ethnopharmacology in Myanmar, Lao PDR and Cambodia 328
27.8 Ethnopharmacology in Singapore and Brunei 328
27.9 Conclusion 328
Acknowledgement 329
References 329

28 Historical Approaches in Ethnopharmacology 333
Andreas Lardos
28.1 Introduction 333
28.2 Historical texts in ethnopharmacological research 334
28.3 Methodological aspects 335
28.4 Challenges in the analysis of historical texts 335
28.5 Opportunities offered by a historical approach 337
28.6 Conclusions 338
References 339

29 Medical Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology of Europe 343
Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana, Cassandra L. Quave, Renata Sõukand and Andrea Pieroni
29.1 Introduction 343
29.2 A brief history of European medicinal plants studies 344
29.3 Modern European medico-ethnobotanical studies 345
29.4 European ethnomedicinal flora 350
29.5 Adaptation, syncretism and resilience of traditional pharmacopoeias 351
29.6 Pharmacological studies of European medicinal plants 351
29.7 Concluding remarks 352
References 352

30 Ethnopharmacology in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: ‘The Sun Rises from the East, but Shines on the Eastern Mediterranean’ 357
Erdem Yesilada
30.1 Introduction 357
30.2 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Balkan region 358
30.3 Modern ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in the Middle East 359
30.4 Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology in Turkey 361
30.5 Concluding remarks 362
References 362

31 Ethnopharmacology in Australia and Oceania 365
Graham Lloyd Jones and Nicholas J. Sadgrove
31.1 Introduction 365
31.2 Ethnopharmacological ‘classics’ 367
31.3 Australian aromatic plants 369
31.4 Recent developments: aromatic plants 371
31.5 Recent developments: cancer and HIV 376
31.6 Conclusion 376
References 377

32 Ethnopharmacology in Central and South America 379
Salvador Cañigueral and Jaume Sanz-Biset
32.1 Introduction 379
32.2 The development of drugs 381
32.3 Beyond the development of new drugs 386
32.4 Bridging indigenous and western knowledge 387
32.5 Hallucinogens 388
32.6 Conclusion 389
References 389

33 Perspectives on Ethnopharmacology in Mexico 393
Robert Bye and Edelmira Linares
33.1 Introduction 393
33.2 Mexican tradition 394
33.3 Compilation of medicinal plants 396
33.4 Medicinal plant complex 398
33.5 Markets and medicinal plants 399
33.6 Bioprospection and conservation 399
33.7 Conclusions 401
Acknowledgements 401
References 401

34 Encounters with Elephants: A Personal Perspective on Ethnopharmacology 405
Peter J. Houghton
34.1 Introduction 405
34.2 The primacy of plants 406
34.3 Sources: dirty hands and databases 406
34.4 From cultural use to chemistry 407
34.5 Chemistry as a starter 407
34.6 Botany as a basis 408
34.7 Of mice and men and microwell plates 408
34.8 Aims and ethics 409
34.9 Molecules and mixtures 410
34.10 Tales of the unexpected 410
34.11 The end of the matter 411
References 411

Index 415


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