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From Molecules to Living Organisms: An Interplay Between Biology and Physics

Illustrates the power of integrated methods in biology: from molecules to cells and organisms
Interdisciplinary approach, bridging structural biology and physics
Presentation of new methods
Illustration of the power of several types of microscopies

Series: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School Volume: 102

By: Eva Pebay-Peyroula (Editor), Hugues Nury (Editor), François Parcy (Editor), Rob WH Ruigrok (Editor), Christine Ziegler (Editor), Leticia F Cugliandolo (Editor)

Oxford University Press

Hardback | Jan 2016 | #225944 | ISBN-13: 9780198752950
Availability: Usually dispatched within 48 hours
NHBS Price: £39.99 $50/€47 approx

About this book

From Molecules to Living Organisms gathers lecture notes of courses given at the 2014 summer school on integrated biology in Les Houches, France, Session CII. It addresses an emerging field ranging from molecules to cells and to organisms. Through examples it presents a new way of thinking using a combination of interdisciplinary and cutting-edge methods, bridging physics and biology beyond current biophysics. Important novel developments are expected in the coming years that may well introduce paradigm shifts in biological science. The school had the ambition to prepare participants to become major actors in these breakthroughs.

The power of integrated approaches is illustrated through two cases: interactions between viruses and host cells, and flower development. The role of forces in biology, as well as their mathematical modeling, is illustrated in both processes: how they allow flower organs to emerge or how they control membrane fusion during virus budding. From Molecules to Living Organisms also underlines the importance of conformational changes and dynamics of proteins particularly during membrane processes. It explains how membrane proteins can be handled and studied by molecular simulations. Finally, From Molecules to Living Organisms also contains concepts in cell biology, in thermodynamics and several novel approaches such as in-cell NMR. Altogether, the chapters show how examining a biological system from different viewpoints based on multidisciplinary aspects often leads to enriching controversial arguments.


Contents

Part I: Concepts in cell biology and examples of multiscale studies in biology
1: Franz Bruckert: Introduction to cell biology
2: Nikolas Herold, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Barbara Müller: A small leak will sink a great ship: HIV-host interactions
3: Icham Chahtane, Grégoire Denay, Julia Engelhorn, Marie Monniaux, Edwige Moyroud, Fanny Moreau, Cristel Carles, Gabrielle Tichtinsky, Chloe Zubieta, François Parcy: Flower development: an integrated view

Part II: Concepts in Physics and emerging methods
4: Guiseppe Zaccai: Thermodynamics (a reminder)
5: Enrico Luchinat: NMR spectroscopy, from basic concepts to advanced methods
6: Albert Guskov, Dirk Jan Slotboom: SEC-MALLS to determine protein oligomeric states

Part III: Plant development: from genes to growth
7: George Coupland: Mechanisms controlling time measurement in plants and their significance in natural populations
8: Oliver Hamant: Forces in plant development
9: Christophe Godin: Virtual plants

Part IV: Forces in Biology: reshaping membranes
10: Patricia Bassereau, Winfried Weissenhorn, Michael Kozlov: Membrane remodeling: theoretical principles, structures of protein scaffolds and forces involved

Part V: Conformational changes and their implications in diseases
11: Yves Gaudin: Protein conformational changes

Part VI: Membrane transporters: from structure to function
12: Christine Ziegler: The do's and don'ts in handling membrane proteins for structural studies
13: François Dehez: Molecular simulation: a virtual microscope in the toolbox of integrated structural biology


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Biography

Eva Pebay-Peyroula is Professor at the Grenoble University, France. She received her PhD in Physics in 1986. In the following years, she changed her research interest towards structural biology. During the last 20 years she focuses on membrane proteins, first bacterial rhodopsins and then mitochondrial carriers, and is also interested in the development of novel crystallization methods based on lipidic phases.

Hugues Nury is a CNRS researcher interested in structural biology of membrane proteins, and especially of ion channels. He uses biochemistry, biophysics and crystallography to understand the operation mechanism of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels.

François Parcy is a CNRS research director. He started as a molecular geneticist of Arabidopsis seed and flower development. In more recent years, he has focused on transcriptional regulations during the development of flowers. He follows an integrative structural biology approach to understand how molecular properties of transcription and chromatin regulators at the atomic scale determine their actions at the genome level.

Rob W. H. Ruigrok worked as a group leader with the EMBL in Grenoble for 14 years and became a Professor at the University of Grenoble in 2003. He worked mainly on RNA viruses as influenza, rabies and measles viruses. He uses biochemistry, electron microscopy and crystallography to show how these viruses make new RNA, both mRNA and new viral RNAs, using nucleoproteins and polymerase binding RNA.

Christine Ziegler is Professor at the University of Regensburg, Germany. She got a PhD in Radiation Biophysics in 1996. After training as Medical Physicist she moved into the field of structural biology of membrane proteins and worked intensively on the molecular mechanism of secondary transporters. Her main expertise is in 2D and 3D crystallization of membrane transporters and channels as well as in Single Particle Analysis and cryo-electron microscopy.

Leticia F. Cugliandolo received her Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, in 1991. After post-docs in Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, and CEA/Saclay she joined the Physics Department at Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris in 1997. She is currently a full professor at Universite Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris and the director of Ecole de Physique des Houches since 2007. Her research focuses on statistical physics and condensed matter problems. She received the Marie Curie Excellence Award, the Guggenheim Fellowship and the Prix Langevin of the French Physical Society.
 

Contributors:
- Franz Bruckert
- Nikolas Herold
- Hans-Georg Kräusslich
- Barbara Müller
- Icham Chahtane
- Grégoire Denay
- Julia Engelhorn
- Marie Monniaux
- Edwige Moyroud
- Fanny Moreau
- Cristel Carles
- Gabrielle Tichtinsky
- Chloe Zubieta
- François Parcy
- Guiseppe Zaccai
- Enrico Luchinat
- Albert Guskov
- Dirk Jan Slotboom
- George Coupland
- Oliver Hamant
- Christophe Godin
- Patricia Bassereau
- Winfried Weissenhorn
- Michael Kozlov
- Yves Gaudin
- François Dehez

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