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Autoecology and Ecophysiology of Woody Shrubs and Trees: Fundamental Concepts and Their Applications

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By: Ratikanta Maiti (Author), Humbero González Rodríguez (Author), Natalya Sergeevna Ivanova (Author)

John Wiley & Sons

Paperback | May 2016 | #228510 | ISBN-13: 9781119104445
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £84.99 $107/€100 approx

About this book

Autoecology and Ecophysiology of Woody Shrubs and Trees unites the two very relevant fields of autoecology and ecophysiology of trees. It provides information on practical field knowledge and recent advances in scientific research. It is a handbook for both field practitioners, students, lecturers and many others in a variety of fields from botany to forestry to ecology to ecosystem science and natural resource management. Apart from this, Autoecology and Ecophysiology of Woody Shrubs and Trees provides knowledge for the management and research advances on the autoecology and ecophysiology in various disciplines, unlike related titles on the market. It bridges the gaps between ecophysiology and autoecology in an effective way. Also there is a need for a book that provide hands-on practical information for practitioners in fields such as forest restoration to be in contact with knowledge and techniques that are not normally as readily available and comprehensible. The same applies for undergraduates and postgraduate students.


Contents

Concise table of contents:

Preface 11
Chapter 1. Background 12

Part 1
Chapter 2. Autoecology 27
Chapter 3. Vegetation and biodiversity 39
Chapter 4. A case study: A trip to regions of biodiversity and rainforest in Riviera Maya 46
Chapter 5. Plant traits 60
Chapter 6. Leaf traits 101
Chapter 7. Wood characteristics 111
Chapter 8. Phenology 147
Chapter 9. Phenology, morphology and variability in pollen viability of four woody species (Cordia boissieri, Parkinsonia texana, Parkinsonia aculeate and Leucophyllum frutescens) exposed to environmental temperature, northeastern Mexico 164
Chapter 10. Pollen biology and plant productivity: A review 174
Chapter 11. Seed characteristics 205
Chapter 12. Tree mortality 210
Chapter 13. Plant traits related to the productivity of trees 217

Part 2
Chapter 14. Ecophysiology 230
Chapter 15. Research advances on plant ecophysiology 240
Chapter 16. Carbon capture, carbon sequestration and carbon fixation 250
Chapter 17. Plant nutrients 275
Chapter 18. Litterfal and forest productivity 297
Chapter 19. Nutrient cycling 304
Chapter 20. Plant water relations and forest productivity 308
Chapter 21. Cold tolerance of trees 324
Chapter 22. Heat stress tolerance of trees 330
Chapter 23. Seed characteristics, seed dormancy, germination and plant propagation 335
Chapter 24. Root growth 345
Chapter 25. Features of Boreal forest of Russia: A special study 353
Chapter 26. Case study: Autoecology, biodiversity and as adaptive characteristics of Prosopis in the Arizona region: An overview 387


Detailed table of contents:

Preface 11

Chapter 1. Background 12
1.1 A definition of autoecology 13
1.2 A definition of ecophysiology 13
1.3 Environment 13
1.4 Solar radiation 15
1.5 Solar radiation and vegetation 15
1.6 Light requirement of tree species 15
1.7 Photomorphogenesis and photoperiodism 16
1.8 Photosynthesis 16
1.9 Temperature 16
1.10 Water relations 17
1.11 Plant nutrients 18
1.12 Role of nutrients in plant life 19
1.13 Plant factors 20
1.14 Respiration 20
1.15 Phenology and ecology 20
1.16 Effect of drought stress 21
1.17 Ecological plasticity 22
1.18 Productivity 22
1.19 Further reading 23

PART 1 27

Chapter 2. Autoecology 27
2.1 Background 27
2.2 Temperate region 29
2.3 Tropical rainforest 31
2.4 Semiarid and arid lands 34
2.5 Alpine region 35
2.6 Further reading 36

Chapter 3. Vegetation and biodiversity 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Climate 41
3.3 Hydrology 41
3.4 Further reading 45

Chapter 4. A case study: A trip to regions of biodiversity and rainforest in Riviera Maya 46
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Visit to territory of dolphins: play ground of dolphins 53
4.3 Zones of pelicans and sea ducks 54
4.4 Zones of sea dives and swimming 54
4.5 Return journey through Sian Ka´an Reserve Forest 54
4.6 Food arrangement 54
4.7 Visit to Chichen Itza - Merida, Yucatan Peninsula 55
4.8 Visit to underground river, named “CENOTE” 56
4.9 Further reading 58

Chapter 5. Plant traits 60
5.1 Research advances in plant traits 60
5.2 Branching pattern of trees 77
5.3 Tree crown architecture 80
5.4 Leaf traits 84
5.5 Variability in leaf canopy architecture 85
5.6 Variability in leaf traits of 13 native woody species in semiarid regions of Northeastern Mexico 88
5.6.1 Introduction 88
5.6.2 Principal component analysis (PCA) 95
5.6.3 Conclusions 98
5.6.4 Further reading 98

Chapter 6. Leaf traits 101
6.1 Introduction 101
6.2 Leaf anatomy 103
6.3 Taxonomy 103
6.4 Adaption to environments 105
6.5 Leaf surface anatomy 108
6.6 Further reading 110

Chapter 7. Wood characteristics 111
7.1 Introduction 111
7.2 Different types of wood 111
7.3 Wood density of few woody species 112
7.4 Wood anatomy and wood fibres (A contributed by R.K. Maiti, Artemillo Carrillo Parra, Humberto Gonzalez Rodriguez) 112
7.4.1 A brief account is given here on the structure, function, development 113
7.4.2 Xylem structure and variability 113
7.4.3 Evolution of secondary xylem 114
7.4.4 Wood fibres 120
7.4.5 Physical and mechanical properties 122
7.4.6 Guide to study wood anatomy: 123
7.4.7 General description of wood anatomy 125
7.4.8 Characterization of wood fibres of shrubs and tree species of the Tamaulipan Thornscrub, northeastern Mexico 134
7.4.8.1 Background 134
7.4.8.2 Methodology 135
7.4.8.3 Results 136
7.4.8.4 Discussion 143
7.4.8.5 Conclusions and research needs 144
7.4.8.5 Further reading 144

Chapter 8. Phenology 147
8.1 Introduction 147
8.2 Reproductive phenology (flowering and fruiting) of ten woody plants, Northeastern Mexico 149
8.2.1 Methodology 149
8.2.1.1 Study area 149
8.2.1.2 Vegetation of the study area 149
8.2.1.3 Selection of specimens 150
8.2.1.4 Study on phenology 151
8.2.1.5 Environmental variables 152
8.2.1.6 Results and discussion 152
8.2.1.7 Conclusions 160
8.2.1.8 Further reading 161

Chapter 9. Phenology, morphology and variability in pollen viability of four woody species (Cordia boissieri, Parkinsonia texana, Parkinsonia aculeate and Leucophyllum frutescens) exposed to environmental temperature, northeastern Mexico 164
9.1 Background 164
9.2 Pollen viability 165
9.3 Methodology 167
9.4 Results and discusion 168
9.4.1 Phenology 168
9.4.2 Pollen morphology 168
9.4.3 Pollen viability 170
9.5 Conclusions 171
9.6 Further reading 172

Chapter 10. Pollen biology and plant productivity: A review 174
10.1 Introduction 174
10.2 Materials, methods and scope of the study 177
10.3 Elaboration of the review 177
10.4 Pollen morphology 178
10.5 Pollen dispersal 182
10.6 Pollen germination 183
10.7 Pollen load, pollination and seed production 187
10.8 Pollen tube growth 190
10.9 Pollen viability 191
10.10 Effects of nitrogen di-oxide (NO2) 193
10.11 Effects of temperature 194
10.12 Other factors 196
10.13 Storage of pollen 196
10.14 Seed production 197
10.15 Conclusions 200
10.16 Further reading 200

Chapter 11. Seed characteristics 205
11.1 Introduction 205
11.2 Seed productivity in trees and shrubs 205
11.3 Further reading 208

Chapter 12. Tree mortality 210
12.1 Introduction 210
12.2 Further reading 216

Chapter 13. Plant traits related to the productivity of trees 217
13.1 Background 217
13.2 Basal diameter 217
13.2.1 Worked example 221
13.3 Plant height 221
13.4 Bole diameter growth of trees 223
13.5 Regeneration 224
13.6 Further reading 228

PART 2. 230

Chapter 14. Ecophysiology 230
14.1 Background 230
14.2 Tropical rainforest 231
14.3 Temperate forest 233
14.4 Alpine forest 237
14.5 Further reading 238

Chapter 15. Research advances on plant ecophysiology 240
15.1 Leaf pigments 240
15.2 Background 240
15.3 Methodology 242
15.3.1 Determinations of chlorophyll and carotenoids 242
15.4 Results 243
15.5 Discussion 245
15.6 Conclusions and future research 247
15.7 Further reading 247

Chapter 16. Carbon capture, carbon sequestration and carbon fixation 250
16.1 Introduction 250
16.2 Examples of the role of lower plants in carbon fixation 250
16.3 Conclusions and future research 258
16.4 Factors affecting the productivity of forest 258
16.4.1 Transpiration 258
16.4.2 Photosynthesis and plant productivity 261
16.4.3 Respiration 266
16.4.4 Response of trees to abiotic stresses and its growth 269
16.5 Further reading 272

Chapter 17. Plant nutrients 275
17.1 Background 275
17.2 Micro and macronutrient contents and carbon sequestration in ten native shrubs and trees in norteastern Mexico 275
17.3 Methodology 280
17.3.1 Chemical analysis 281
17.4 Results 281
17.5 Discussion 286
17.6 Conclusions and future studies 289
17.7 Research needs on conservation of native trees and carbon sequestration 289
17.8 Further reading 294

Chapter 18. Litterfal and forest productivity 297
18.1 Litterfall studies in northeastern Mexico 297
18.2 Methodology 298
18.2.1 Chemical analyses 299
18.3 Results and discussion 299
18.4 Further reading 302

Chapter 19. Nutrient cycling 304
19.1 Background 304
19.2 Further reading 306

Chapter 20. Plant water relations and forest productivity 308
20.1 Background 308
20.2 Plant water relation studies in northeastren Mexico 309
20.3 Methodology 310
20.4 Results and discussion 311
20.5 Conclusions and research needs 315
20.6 Soil water potential 315
20.7 Further reading 320

Chapter 21. Cold tolerance of trees 324
21.1 Studies on cold tolerance of trees 324
21.2 Further reading 328

Chapter 22. Heat stress tolerance of trees 330
22.1 Studies on heat stress tolerance of trees 330
22.2 Further reading 333

Chapter 23. Seed characteristics, seed dormancy, germination and plant propagation 335
23.1 Seed dormancy and germination 335
23.1.1 Techniques for breaking seed dormancy 335
23.2 Seed scarification 336
23.3 Seed stratification 336
23.4 Further reading 343

Chapter 24. Root growth 345
24.1 Root system of trees 345
24.2 Root distribution 346
24.3 Root depth 346
24.5 Root spread 347
24.6 Factors affecting root distribution 347
24.7 Tree root structure and function 347
24.8 Root growth 348
24.9 Organic rich soils 350
24.10 Conclusion and research needs 352
24.11 Further reading 352

Chapter 25. Features of Boreal forest of Russia: A special study 353
25.1 Distribution and general characteristics of the boreal forests 353
25.2 The main forest-forming tree species of the boreal forest 354
25.3 Reforestation of the boreal forest 355
25.4 Field study 356
25.5 Methodological approaches and methods 357
25.5.1 Natural regeneration of Picea obovata Ledeb. on the southern border of the range (the mountain forests of the Southern Urals) 359
25.5.1.1 Picea obovata Ledeb. regrowth under the canopy of dark-coniferous forests 360
25.5.1.2 Picea obovata Ledeb. regrowth under the canopy of birch and aspen 363
25.6 The main forest types of the Middle Urals 367
25.6.1 Features of natural and artificial regeneration of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea obovata Ledeb. on clear-cuts in the Zauralsky (Transuralian) hilly piedmont province of the Middle Urals 368
25.6.2 Germination and seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea obovata Ledeb, Larix sibirica Ledeb. on soil of different types of boreal forests 371
25.6.2.1 Forest soil after clear-cuttings 373
25.6.2.2 Dependence of germination energy and the germination of woody plants on soil conditions 374
25.7 Conclusions 382
25.8 Further reading 383

Chapter 26. Case study: Autoecology, biodiversity and as adaptive characteristics of Prosopis in the Arizona region: An overview 387
26.1 Introduction 387
26.2 Medicinal value 388
26.3 Plant characteristics 389
26.4 Control of mesquites 389
26.5 Adaptative traits of mesquites to the desert environment 390
26.6 Physiological mechanism of resistance 391
26.7 Biodiversity 392
26.8 Materials and methods 394
26.9 Results and discussion 394
26.9.1 Plant characteristics 394
26.9.2 Plant architecture 395
26.9.3 Crown shape 395
26.9.4 Branching pattern 395
26.9.5 Habitat 396
26.9.6 Biodiversity 396
26.9.7 Prosopis poses as obnoxious weed 399
26.9.8 Sillent valley and uphills of Prosopis forest 400
26.10 Conclusions and research needs 402
26.11 Further reading 403


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Biography

Preface 11
Chapter 1. Background 12

Part 1
Chapter 2. Autoecology 27
Chapter 3. Vegetation and biodiversity 39
Chapter 4. A case study: A trip to regions of biodiversity and rainforest in Riviera Maya 46
Chapter 5. Plant traits 60
Chapter 6. Leaf traits 101
Chapter 7. Wood characteristics 111
Chapter 8. Phenology 147
Chapter 9. Phenology, morphology and variability in pollen viability of four woody species (Cordia boissieri, Parkinsonia texana, Parkinsonia aculeate and Leucophyllum frutescens) exposed to environmental temperature, northeastern Mexico 164
Chapter 10. Pollen biology and plant productivity: A review 174
Chapter 11. Seed characteristics 205
Chapter 12. Tree mortality 210
Chapter 13. Plant traits related to the productivity of trees 217

Part 2
Chapter 14. Ecophysiology 230
Chapter 15. Research advances on plant ecophysiology 240
Chapter 16. Carbon capture, carbon sequestration and carbon fixation 250
Chapter 17. Plant nutrients 275
Chapter 18. Litterfal and forest productivity 297
Chapter 19. Nutrient cycling 304
Chapter 20. Plant water relations and forest productivity 308
Chapter 21. Cold tolerance of trees 324
Chapter 22. Heat stress tolerance of trees 330
Chapter 23. Seed characteristics, seed dormancy, germination and plant propagation 335
Chapter 24. Root growth 345
Chapter 25. Features of Boreal forest of Russia: A special study 353
Chapter 26. Case study: Autoecology, biodiversity and as adaptive characteristics of Prosopis in the Arizona region: An overview 387

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