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Environmental Mycology in Public Health: Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management

Provides unique new insights on fungi and their metabolites detection in the environmental and occupational settings
Presents new information that is enriched by significant cases studies
Multi-contributed work, edited by a proficient team in medical and environmental mycology with different individual expertise
Guides the readers in the implementation of preventive and protective measures regarding exposure to fungi

By: Carla Viegas (Editor), Ana Catarina Pinheiro (Editor), Raquel Sabino (Editor), Susana Viegas (Editor), João Brandão (Editor), Cristina Veríssimo (Editor)

458 pages, 40 illustrations

Academic Press

Hardback | Sep 2015 | #230070 | ISBN-13: 9780124114715
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1 week Details
NHBS Price: £94.99 $121/€113 approx

About this book

Environmental Mycology in Public Health: Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management provides the most updated information on fungi, an essential element in the survival of our global ecology that can also pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they are present in buildings.

As the exposure to fungi in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms, including allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Environmental Mycology in Public Health presents information on fungi and their disease agents, important aspects of exposure assessment, and their impacts on health.

Environmental Mycology in Public Health answers the hard questions, including, "How does one detect and measure the presence of indoor fungi?" and "What is an acceptable level of indoor fungi?" It then examines how we relate this information to human health problems.


Contents

    Dedication
    Foreword
    Part I. Fungal Specificities in Environmental Mycology
        Section I. General Fungal Characteristics
            Chapter 1. Cellular Constitution, Water and Nutritional Needs, and Secondary Metabolites
                Fungal Structures
                Growth Conditions
                Fungal Metabolites
            Chapter 2. Dispersion Forms
        Section II. Outline of Fungal Pathologies
            Chapter 3. Fungal Infections
                Superficial Fungal Infections
                Subcutaneous Infections
                Invasive Fungal Infections
            Chapter 4. Allergic Response to Fungal Exposure
                Allergic Disease and Fungal Sensitization
                Immune Response and Hypersensitivity to Fungal Exposure
                Allergic Rhinitis
                Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis
                Asthma
                Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
                Atopic Dermatitis
                Other Diseases
                Diagnosis of Fungal-Related Allergic Diseases
                Treatment
            Chapter 5. Mycotoxicoses
                Aflatoxins
                Fumonisins
                Ochratoxins
                Zearalenone
                Trichothecenes
        Section III
            Chapter 6. Risk Groups for Acquiring Fungal Infections
    Part II. Environmental Mycology in Public Health
        Section I
            Chapter 7. Pathways and Routes of Natural Exposure to Fungal Infection
                Exposure Pathways and Routes of Infection in Humans
                Dermatophytosis
                Superficial Candidosis
                Mycotic Keratitis
                Otomycosis
                Aspergillosis
                Systemic Candidosis
                Cryptococcosis
                Mucormycosis
                Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia
                Blastomycosis
                Coccidioidomycosis
                Histoplasmosis
                Paracoccidioidomycosis
                Chromoblastomycosis
                Entomophthoromycosis
                Mycetoma
                Sporotrichosis
                Phaeohyphomycosis
                Hyalohyphomycosis
                Inhalational Models of Infection
                Mucosal Models of Infection
                Direct Infection
                Conclusions
        Section II. Occupational Settings
            Chapter 8. Highly Contaminated Workplaces
                Introduction
                Fungal Aerosols in Animal Confinement Buildings
                Fungal Aerosols in Sawmills
                Fungal Aerosols in Waste Sectors
                Fungal Aerosols in the Food Industry
                Fungal Aerosols during Plant and Grain Handling
                Conclusions
            Chapter 9. Fungi in Low-contamination Occupational Environments
                Introduction
                Measurement Aspects
                Fungal Species in Indoor Environments
                General Aspects of Fungal Contamination
                Essential Sources of Indoor Fungi
                Role of Ventilation in Fungal Contamination of Indoor Spaces
                Carpets
                Fungal Growth due to Moisture or Dampness
                General Observations on the Data from Low-contamination Environments
                Offices
                Schools and Day Care Centers
                Hospitals and Institutions
                Other Locations
                Experiences from Interventions
                Application of Guidance Reference Values for Fungal Contamination
                Importance of Indoor Environmental Investigations in Public Health
        Section III. Nonoccupational Exposure
            Chapter 10. Domestic Environment
                Preventive Measures
                Collaborators
            Chapter 11. Urban Environment
                Introduction
                Cryptococcosis
                Sporotrichosis
            Chapter 12. Urban Settings
            Chapter 13. Recreational Environment
                Introduction
                Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
                Discussion/Conclusions
                Recommendations
            Chapter 14. Hospital Environment
                Contamination Sources
                Threshold Values Used to Evaluate Microbiological Contamination in the Hospital Environment
                When Should a Hospital Environmental Analysis be Performed?
        Section IV
            Chapter 15. Fungal Disease Outbreaks and Natural Disasters
                Introduction
                Fungal Diseases after Natural Disasters
                Outbreaks Caused by Dimorphic Fungi
                Outbreaks Caused by Molds
                Conclusion
                Disclaimer
    Part III. Fungi and Metabolites
        Chapter 16. Dietary Exposure Assessment of European Population to Mycotoxins: A Review
            Introduction
            Exposure Assessment Methodology
            Exposure Assessment of European Population
            Conclusion and Future Needs
        Chapter 17. Mycotoxins as Food Carcinogens
            Mycotoxins Contaminating Food
            Tolerable Daily Intakes and Maximum Levels in Foodstuffs
            Carcinogenic Risk to Humans: IARC and NTP Classifications
            Aflatoxin B1: Genotoxic Carcinogen
            Ochratoxin A: Long Genotoxic–Epigenetic Dilemma
        Chapter 18. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Indoor Environments
            Introduction and Scope
            Mycotoxins in Building Materials, Dust, and Air from Indoor Environments
            Mycotoxins in the Context of Moisture Damage
            Summary, Concluding Remarks, Future Challenges
        Chapter 19. Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins and Preventive Measures
            Characteristics of Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure
            Indications of Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Occupational Settings
            Airborne Concentration, Duration, and Frequency as Criteria for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure
            Assessment Strategies
            Prevention
        Chapter 20. Mycotoxins: Genotoxicity Studies and Methodologies
            Introduction
            Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay
            Micronucleus
            Nucleoplasmic Bridges
            Nuclear Buds
            Assessing Genotoxic Effects of Mycotoxins by CBMN
            Comet Assay
            Assessing Genotoxic Effects of Mycotoxins by Comet Assay
        Chapter 21. Mycotoxin Analytical Methods
            Extraction and Analytical Techniques
            Food and Feed of Cereal Origin
            Other Food Matrices
            Separation Techniques for Identification and Determination of Mycotoxins
            Immunoassay and Other Methods
            Environmental Samples
        Chapter 22. Indoor Microbial Volatile Organic Compound (MVOC) Levels and Associations with Respiratory Health, Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), and Allergy
            Introduction
            Measurement and Analysis of MVOC
            MVOC Levels in Indoor and Occupational Environments
            MVOCs in Indoor Environment as Indicator of Hidden Microbial Growth
            Health Effect and Sick Building Syndrome
            Conclusions
    Part IV. Methods in Environmental Mycology
        Section I. Environmental Sampling
            Chapter 23. Air, Surface and Water Sampling
                Introduction
                Passive Methods
                Active Methods
                Strategy
                Surface Sampling
                Water Sampling
        Section II
            Chapter 24. Sand and Soil Sampling
            Chapter 25. Processing Methodologies
                Microscopy
                Classical Culturing Methods
                Biochemical Methods
                Immunological Assays
                Molecular Biology Approaches
            Chapter 26. Molecular Approaches to Detect and Identify Fungal Agents in Various Environmental Settings
    Index


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Biography

Carla Viegas graduated in Environmental Health from Lisbon School of Health Technology - Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon and has a Master degree in Safety and Ergonomics from Lisbon University and PhD in Occupational and Environmental Health from New University of Lisbon. The author's major field of study is occupational and environmental mycology leading and participating in several projects about both areas of expertise. Special interest are occupational exposure to fungi in highly contaminated settings and complementarity of conventional methods and molecular tools to assess fungi occupational exposure with several articles published or in press. Professor at Lisbon School of Health Technology, Director of the Occupational Health Master's course and researcher at Environment and Health Research Group.

Catarina Pinheiro has a degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Lisbon, a degree in Conservation and Restoration from the New University of Lisbon and a PhD on Conservation Science from the New University of Lisbon. The focus of the current project is the fungal contamination in Archives and how this environment can affect both the people and the historic documents deposited at these premises. Particular interests are fungal microbiology, indoor air quality, occupational exposure to fungi and risk analysis with several articles published or in press. Has also teaching experience, both in the Pharmacy field and in Cultural Heritage and related thematics.

Raquel Sabino graduated in Biology - Microbiology and Genetics by the University of Lisbon and PhD in Biology by Minho University. Specialized in clinical and environmental mycology, has been conducting research in these two areas of expertise. Professor in postgraduate courses covering these areas and also in environmental microbiology. Presently conducting research at the Portuguese Institute of Health and in California Institute of Medical Research / Stanford University in Aspergillus molecular epidemiology. Specialization domains are molecular epidemiology of Candida and Aspergillus, studies in clinical and environmental fungal isolates, regarding virulence and antifungal susceptibility pattern and related environmental health problems. One main interest of the author is also the nosocomial fungal infections. The author participated in several national and international projects and has several publications / communications in the referred areas of specialization.

Susana Viegas graduated in Environmental Health from Lisbon School of Health Technology - Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon has a Master degree in Safety and Ergonomics from Lisbon University and PhD in Occupational and Environmental Health from New University of Lisbon. The principal research topics of this author are chemical occupational exposures and indoor air quality. Director and Professor of Environmental Health Graduate Course of Lisbon School of Health Technology and Coordinator of Environment and Health Research Group. Published mostly on occupational and environmental exposure to chemical agents and nowadays developing research about occupational exposures to mycotoxins in different settings.

João Brandão graduated in Chemistry/Biotechnology, specialized in clinical mycology and environmental research work. Has been conducting research in these two areas of expertise, which also lectured at Lus fona University during 4 years (Genetics and Microbiology). Currently - staff of the National Institute of Health, Internal auditor for ISO 17025, and national delegate of the Portuguese Association of Medical Mycology to the European Confederation of Medical Mycology. Particular interest in sand microbiological quality as a biological reservoir of pathogens for recreational users. Has been busy with this subject for 11 years. Leading a monitoring sand programme promoted by the local Blue Flag organization until 2010. Leading R&D project on alternative methods to those currently used. Also very interested in nosocomial and endemic fungal infections as well as prevention and early molecular detection.

Cristina Veríssimo graduated in Biology from the University of Lisbon, specialized in environmental and clinical mycology. Has a masters degree in Human Biology and Environment on invasive aspergillosis. One of the pioneers in this area, the author participated in several national and international projects within environmental mycology, particularly in the project for monitoring the microbiological quality of the sands supported by the Portuguese Blue Flag association (ABAE) and in the ICREW European project financed by Interreg IIIB. Author of several publications in clinical and environmental mycology. Head of the Mycology Laboratory at the National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge.

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