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Paddlefish Aquaculture

By: Steven D Mims (Author), William L Shelton (Author)

Iowa State University Press

Hardback | Jun 2014 | #230638 | ISBN-13: 9780813810584
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £119.00 $152/€142 approx

About this book

Paddlefish have become of increasing interest to the aquaculture community in recent years, particularly as a potential new source of seafood and caviar. Native to North America, paddlefish show great promise both domestically and internationally as a commercially viable farmed species.

Paddlefish Aquaculture examines all aspects of the biology and culture of these fish, exploring their physiology, production, end products and the economics underlying a successful paddlefish operation. Chapters specifically cover paddlefish biology, propagation and early culture techniques, production for meat and caviar, international culture and history, paddlefish food products, bioaccumulants of contaminants in paddlefish, parasites and diseases, and the economics of paddlefish aquaculture. Paddlefish Aquaculture is a timely practical reference for researchers and producers interested in paddlefish.


Contents

Contributors xi
Preface xiii
Foreword xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
William L. Shelton and Steven D. Mims
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Historical Fishery Overview 2
1.3 Overview of Natural Reproduction 5
1.4 International Regulating Factors 5
1.5 Why Culture Paddlefish? 6
References 6

Chapter 2 Biology 11
William L. Shelton
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Taxonomic Relationships 11
Taxonomic Hierarchy 11
2.3 Biogeography 12
2.3.1 Native Range 12
2.3.2 River Systems 12
2.3.3 Reservoir Systems 13
2.3.4 Non-Native Introductions 14
2.3.5 Gene Pool 14
2.3.6 Habitat 17
2.4 Anatomy 17
2.4.1 General Anatomical Features 17
2.4.2 Rostrum or Paddle 20
2.4.3 Internal Anatomy 22
Skeleton 22
Gill Rakers 22
Digestive System 23
Female Reproductive System – General 24
Ontogeny of the Ovary and Seasonal Oogenesis 25
Male Reproductive System – General 26
Ontogeny of the Testes and Seasonal Spermatogenesis 26
2.5 Physiology 28
2.6 Reproductive Biology 34
2.6.1 Gonadal Development and Sex Determination 34
2.6.2 Reproduction 37
2.6.3 Sexual Maturity and Spawning Frequency 37
2.6.4 Pituitary Gland 38
2.6.5 Fecundity 39
2.6.6 Natural Spawning 40
2.6.7 Egg Maturation and Ovulation 40
2.6.8 Fertilization 42
2.6.9 Developmental Embryogeny 43
2.6.10 Developmental Rate (tau, t0) 44
2.6.11 Cleavage and Gastrulation 47
2.6.12 Organogenesis 48
2.6.13 Larvae and Juveniles 49
2.7 Ecology and Management of Natural Stocks 51
2.7.1 Food Habits 51
2.7.2 Growth – Juveniles 51
2.7.3 Age and Growth 53
2.7.4 Potential Fishery Yield 55
2.7.5 Sport Fishing 57
2.7.6 Commercial Fishing 58
2.8 Fish Culture 61
2.8.1 Domestic Culture for Stocking Programs 61
2.8.2 Foodfish Culture 62
2.9 Summary 63
References 63

Chapter 3 Propagation and Early Culture Techniques 77
Steven D. Mims and William L. Shelton
3.1 Introduction 77
3.2 Hatchery and Nursery Facilities 77
3.2.1 Location 77
3.2.2 Water Supply and Quality 77
3.2.3 Brood and Culture Tanks 79
3.3 Brooders 79
3.4 Induced Spawning 80
3.4.1 Brooder Selection by Egg Evaluation 80
3.4.2 Hormones and Injection Guidelines 81
3.5 Gamete Collection 86
3.5.1 Spermiating and Sperm Collection 86
3.5.2 Morphology and Characteristics of Paddlefish Milt and Spermatozoa  86
3.5.3 Sperm Cryopreservation 87
3.5.4 Ovulation and Egg Collection 90
3.6 Fertilization and Egg Incubation 92
3.7 Fry Hatching and Development 96
3.8 Sex Manipulation 97
3.8.1 Induced Meiotic Gynogenesis and Expected Sex Ratio    98
3.8.2 Sex Reversal 103
3.9 Shipment and Transport 106
3.10 Feeding 107
3.10.1 Critical Feeding Period 107
3.10.2 Daphnias as Live Food 108
3.10.3 Daphnia Morphology and Anatomy 109
3.10.4 Daphnia Reproduction 110
3.10.5 Environmental Factors for Daphnia Growth 111
3.10.6 Daphnia Cultivation and Harvest 111
3.10.7 Prepared Diets 111
3.11 Phase-0,-I, and-II Paddlefish Culture 112
3.11.1 Phase-I Culture 112
3.11.2 Phase-I Pond Culture 112
3.11.3 Phase-I Tank Culture 114
3.11.4 Phase-I Comparison of Live Food Versus Prepared Diets 115
3.12 Phase-II Culture Systems 117
3.12.1 Phase-II Pond Culture 117
3.12.2 Phase-II Pond Water Quality 117
3.12.3 Aquatic Weed Control 118
3.12.4 Phase-II Tank Culture Using Decommissioned Wastewater Treatment Facilities 119
3.13 Summary 120
References 122

Chapter 4 Paddlefish Production for Meat and Caviar 129
Richard J. Onders and Steven D. Mims
4.1 Introduction 129
4.2 Polyculture 129
4.2.1 Open Pond System 129
4.2.2 In-Pond Raceway System 130
4.3 Intensive Monoculture 132
4.4 Extensive Pen Culture 134
4.5 Reservoir Ranching 135
4.5.1 Private Reservoirs 136
4.5.2 Public Waters 138
Public Waters in China and the United States 138
Socio-Political and Economic Considerations 139
Conflicts With Sport Fishing 141
Biological Considerations 142
4.5.3 Reservoir Ranching Study 142
4.5.4 Bioenergetics Modeling 143
4.5.5 Losses of Stocked Paddlefish 144
Predation 144
Escape of Stocked Paddlefish 148
Poaching 148
4.6 Summary 149
References 150

Chapter 5 Paddlefish: International Status 153
Steven D. Mims
5.1 Introduction 153
5.2 International History 155
5.2.1 Introduction as a Foodfish 155
5.2.2 Paddlefish as an Ornamental Fish 156
5.3 Non-US Countries with Paddlefish Aquaculture 157
5.4 Chinese Paddlefish 167
5.4.1 Life History 167
5.4.2 Descriptive Morphology 168
5.4.3 Feeding 168
5.4.4 Sexual Maturity and Spawning 168
5.4.5 Potential Propagation and Cultivation Techniques 169
5.4.6 Chinese Paddlefish Broodfish Exploration 171
5.5 Regulations and Permits 171
5.5.1 International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 171
5.5.2 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 173
5.5.3 Lacey Act 174
5.5.4 Practical Examples of Lacey Act Violations 175
5.5.5 Conspiracy Act 176
5.6 Summary 176
References 177

Chapter 6 Paddlefish Food Products 179
Joshua L. Herring and Steven D. Mims
6.1 Introduction 179
6.2 Caviar 179
6.2.1 Paddlefish Caviar 180
6.2.2 History 181
6.2.3 Caviar Preparation 182
6.2.4 Nutritional Qualities of Caviar 187
6.2.5 Caviar Safety Control 187
6.3 Paddlefish Meat 188
6.3.1 Lipids and Fatty Acids 189
6.3.2 Processing 190
6.3.3 Storage 190
6.3.4 Value-added Products 192
Hot-Smoked Fish 192
Surimi 193
6.4 Food Quality and Safety 195
6.4.1 Water Activity 195
6.4.2 Water-Phase Salt 195
6.5 Regulating Agencies 196
6.5.1 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 196
6.5.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 196
6.6 Scientific Principles 197
6.7 Regulatory Guidelines 197
6.8 Haccp Development 198
6.9 Summary 199
References 199
Appendix 6.1: Paddlefish Recipes 202
Paddlefish Recipes from the United States 202
Paddlefish Curry 202
Cornmeal Rolled Paddlefish with Shrimp Succotash 202
Crispy Fried Paddlefish 203
Paddlefish Fajitas 204
Potato Wrapped Paddlefish 204
Paddlefish Recipes from China 205
Sliced Paddlefish with Lemon 205
Fried Sliced Paddlefish 205
Steamed Paddlefish with Chopped Pepper 206
Crisp Paddlefish 206
Spicy Double-Cooked Paddlefish 207
Spicy Paddlefish 208

Chapter 7 Bioaccumulation of Contaminants in Paddlefish 209
Deke T. Gundersen
7.1 Introduction 209
7.2 Bioaccumulative Contaminants in the Environment 209
7.2.1 PCBs 209
7.2.2 DDT 210
7.2.3 Other Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 212
7.2.4 Mercury 212
7.3 Contaminants that Bioaccumulate in Tissue 214
7.4 Consumption Advisories in Large River Systems 218
7.5 Partitioning of Bioaccumulative Contaminants 220
7.6 Factors Affecting Contaminant Levels 222
7.7 Summary 223
References 223

Chapter 8 Paddlefish Diseases 227
Robert M. Durborow, Roman Kuchta and Tomáš Scholz
8.1 Introduction 227
8.2 Taxonomic Hierarchy of Paddlefish Maladies 227
8.2.1 Bacterial Diseases 227
8.2.2 Viral Disease 228
8.2.3 Parasite Infections 231
Protists 231
Metazoan Parasites 234
8.2.4 Other Diseases and Conditions 245
8.3 Immunity 246
8.4 Water Quality-Related Conditions 246
8.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen 246
8.4.2 High Nitrite (Brown Blood Disease) 247
8.5 Diagnostic Case History: Ksu 1990–2012 248
8.6 Disease Treatment 248
8.6.1 Potassium Permanganate (KMnO) 249
Potassium Permanganate (KMnO) Demand Test 250
8.6.2 Copper Sulfate (CuSO) 253
8.6.3 Formalin 254
8.6.4 Salt 254
8.6.5 Perox-Aid (35%) 256
8.7 Summary 257
References 257
8.1 Appendix Paddlefish Disease Cases At Ksu-Fddl 261
Parasites Found In/On Paddlefish 264
Bacterial infections Found In/On Paddlefish 264
Other Diseases Found In/On Paddlefish 265

Chapter 9 The Economics of Paddlefish Aquaculture 267
Siddhartha Dasgupta
9.1 Introduction 267
9.2 Economics of a Paddlefish Hatchery and Nursery 267
9.3 Intensive Paddlefish Monoculture in Ponds 273
9.4 Paddlefish Polyculture in Catfish Ponds 279
9.5 Paddlefish Reservoir Ranching 280
9.6 Conclusions 287
9.7 Summary 288
References 289

Index 291


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