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The State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges in Geophysics

Monograph

Series: Geophysical Monograph Series Volume: 150

By: Robert SJ Sparks (Editor), Christopher J Hawkesworth (Editor), Masaru Kono (Foreword By)

410 pages, illustrations

American Geophysical Union

Hardback | Jan 2004 | #231307 | ISBN: 0875904157
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £50.95 $64/€61 approx

About this book

Perhaps the most pressing scientific challenge before us concerns our understanding of the Earth and environmental change, which is occurring at a dramatic rate. Humanity can expect serious difficulties on the road ahead as a result, even to the point of threatening civilized progress itself. There is thus an urgent need to understand the state of the planet, to anticipate the effects and consequences of environmental change, and if necessary take preventive action.

Our understanding of change and its consequences can only advance, however, if we understand the Earth system well. Geophysics (sensu lato), one of the critical disciplines in the emerging interdisciplinary Earth System Science, forms the basis of the present book – which moves from the deepest parts of the Earth to surface environments, to a final discussion on the interface between science and society. While depicting the frontiers in each of their fields and focusing on present challenges, our contributing authors have also written for wide readership, specialists and non-specialists alike.


Contents

Preface
      Steve Sparks and Chris Hawkesworth vii
Foreword
      Masaru Kono ix
The Earth's Core: An Approach From First Principles
      G. David Price, D. Alfe, L. Votedlo, and M.J. Gil Ian 1
Modeling the Earth's Dynamo
      Gary A. Glatzmaier, Darcy E. Ogden, and Thomas L. Clune 13
Core-Mantle Boundary Structures and Processes
      Thorne Lay and Edward J. Garnero 25
Seismological Insights Into Heterogeneity Patterns in the Mantle
      B. L. N. Kennett 43
Geophysical and Geochemical Models of Mantle Convection: Successes and Future Challenges
      Yanick Ricard and Nicolas Coltice 59
Melting of Fertile Peridotite With Variable Amounts of H20
      Bernard J. Wood 69
Geophysical Constraints on Slab Subduction and Arc Magmatism
      Akira Hasegawa andJunichi Nakajima 81
Evolution of Arc Magmas and Their Volatiles
      Richard J. Arculus 95
Volatile Controls on Magma Ascent and Eruption
      Katharine V. Cashman 109
Climatic Impact of Volcanic Emissions
      Alan Robock 125
High-Resolution Gravity Mapping: the Next Generation Sensors
      Christopher Jekeli 135
Satellite Magmetic Field Measurements: Applications in Studying the Deep Earth
      Catherine G. Constable and Steven C. Constable 147
Global Navigation Satellite Sounding of the Atmosphere and GNSS Altimetry:Prospects for Geosciences
      T. P. Yunck and G. A. Hajj 161
Dense GPS Array as a New Sensor of Seasonal Changes of Surface Loads
      Kosuke Heki 177
Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Water Storage, Soil Moisture and Surface Waters
      James S. Famiglietti 197
High-Resolution Measurement of Ocean Surface Topography by Radar Interferometry for Oceanographic and Geophysical Applications
      Lee-Leung Fu and Ernesto Rodriguez 209
The Global Water Cycle
      Taikan Oki, Dara Entekhabi, and Timothy Ives Harrold 225
Cryosphere During the Twentieth Century
      Atsumu Ohmura 239
Climate Prediction: The Limits of Ocean Models
      Peter H. Stone 259
Biosphere Dynamics: Challenges for Earth System Models
      I. Colin Prentice, Corinne Le Quere, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Joanna I. House, Christine Klass, and Wolfgang Knorr 269
The UVic Earth System Climate Model and the Thermohaline Circulation in Past, Present, and Future Climates
      Andrew J. Weaver 279
Complexities in the Climate System and Uncertainties in Forecasts
      Ronald G. Prinn 297
Modeling Human-Climate Interaction
      Henry D. Jacoby 307
Uncertainty and Predictability in Geophysics: Chaos and Multifractal Insights
      Daniel Schertzer and Shaun Lovejoy 317
Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting
      David D. Jackson 335
Earthquake Prediction, Seismic Hazard, and Vulnerability
      Seiya Uyeda and Kimiro Meguro 349
Volcanic Activity: Frontiers and Challenges in Forecasting, Prediction and Risk Assessment
      R. S. J. Sparks and W. P. Aspinall 359
Geophysical Risk, Vulnerability, and Sustainability
      Tom Beer 375
People Induced Geophysical Risks and Urban Sustainability
      Ian Douglas 387
Urban Climate, Weather and Sustainability
      Gerald Mills 399


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