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Sex Differences in Physiology

New
Provides a sweeping, organ-by-organ review of currently observed sex differences in animal models and human disease
Explains how sex differences influence physiology and disease
Provides the critical knowledge on sex differences for better understanding of prevention and treatment of diseases

By: Gretchen Neigh (Editor), Megan Mitzelfelt (Editor)

Academic Press

Paperback | May 2016 | #231958 | ISBN-13: 9780128023884
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1 week Details
NHBS Price: £84.99 $108/€100 approx

About this book

Sex Differences in Physiology is an all-encompassing reference that details basic science research into sex differences in all physiological fields. It includes scientific discoveries concerning sex differences in cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal physiology. In addition, coverage of the development, endocrinology, neurophysiology, immunity, and metabolism is included, making this important reference a resource that will meet the needs of investigators interested in incorporating sex differences into their research programs, while also providing clinicians with the basis for providing the best sex-based medical treatment options available.


Contents

    List of Contributors
    Chapter 1. Introduction for Sex Differences in Physiology
        Abstract
        Acknowledgments
        References
    Chapter 2. Chromosomal and Endocrinological Origins of Sex
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Chromosomal Sex
        Gonadal/Hormonal Sex
        Puberty
        Endocrine Functions Across Life Span: An Emphasis on Mammalian Menopause
        Influences on Sexual Differentiation and Development
        Conclusions
        References
    Chapter 3. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology: Implications for Brain Function, Behavior, and Neurological Disease
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Steroid Hormones
        Sex and Neuronal Signaling
        Neurological Control of Body Functions
        Sex and Behavior
        Sex and Neurological Disease
        Conclusions
        References
    Chapter 4. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Immune System
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Traditional Sex Hormone Receptors in the Immune System
        Vitamin D Receptor: A Sex Steroid Receptor
        Sex Differences in Innate Immunity
        Sex Differences in the Adaptive Immune System
        Effect of Vitamin D on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System
        Effect of Menopause on Inflammation
        Conclusions and Future Perspectives
        Funding
        References
    Chapter 5. Sex and Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Coronary Heart Disease
        Heart Failure
        Hypertension
        Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Right Ventricular Dysfunction
        Conclusion
        References
    Chapter 6. Sex Differences in Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology: Implications for Health and Disease
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Sex Differences in the Pulmonary System
        Sex Steroid Signaling in the Lung
        Impact of Sex Steroids on Pulmonary Structure and Function
        Sex Differences in Diseases of the Lung
        Implications of Sex Differences in the Lung
        Conclusion
        Acknowledgment
        References
    Chapter 7. Sex Differences in Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology
        Abstract
        Kidney Anatomy, Development, and Overall Function
        Water Homeostasis and Aquaporins
        BP Control and Electrolyte Homeostasis
        Metabolic Influences on the Kidney
        Phosphorus, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Renal Stones
        Acid-Base Homeostasis and Renal Elimination of Toxins and Drugs
        Special Conditions and Renal Pathology
        Biological Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in the Kidney
        Summary
        Acknowledgments
        References
    Chapter 8. Sex Differences in Gastrointestinal Physiology and Diseases: From Endogenous Sex Hormones to Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Agents
        Abstract
        Estrogen, Androgen, and Progesterone Receptor Expression along the GI Tract
        Sex Hormone Modulation of Gastrointestinal Motility
        Epithelial Ion Transport and Gut Barrier Function
        Influence of Sex in Gastrointestinal Diseases and Pain Sensitivity
        Age, Gender, and Hormonal Status in Food Safety: Open Questions for Endocrine Disruptor Compounds
        Summary and Conclusions
        Acknowledgments
        References
    Chapter 9. Sex and Gender Differences in Body Composition, Lipid Metabolism, and Glucose Regulation
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Sex Differences in Body Fat Deposition
        Sex Differences in Lipid Metabolism
        Sex Differences in Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Action
        Conclusion
        Abbreviations
        References
    Chapter 10. Sex Hormone Influenced Differences in Skeletal Muscle Responses to Aging and Exercise
        Abstract
        Introduction
        E2 Loss and Aging Muscle
        Skeletal Muscle Aging in Men
        Summary
        References
    Chapter 11. Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
        Abstract
        Introduction
        Historical Barriers to the Study of Both Sexes
        Why Study Sex Differences?
        Where Do Sex Differences Come From?
        What is the Nature of Sex Differences?
        Chapter 11.1. How to Study Sex Differences Caused by “Sex Chromosome Effects” on Tissues
            The Four Core Genotypes Mouse Model
            The XY* Model
            Finding the Genes
            The Future of Sex Chromosome Effects
            References
        Chapter 11.2. Organizational Influences of the Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Lessons Learned Through the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis
            Introduction
            Sex Differences in the HPA Axis
            Organizational–Activational Effects on the HPA Axis
            Mapping Gonadal Hormone Sensitive Circuits in the Brain
            Strategies for Research on Gonadal Steroid Organizational Influences on the HPA Axis
            Conclusions and Future Directions
            Acknowledgments
            References
        Chapter 11.3. Strategies and Approaches for the Study of Activational Influences of Gonadal Hormones on Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior
            The Gonadal Hormones
            You Find a Sex Difference in a Trait—What Now?
            Conclusions
            References
        Chapter 11.4. Human Methodologies in the Study of Sex Differences
            Introduction
            Prenatal Hormone Exposure
            Adult Hormone Exposure
            Brain Imaging Methodologies
            Psychosocial Methodologies
            Conclusion
            References
        References for Strategies and Approaches for Studying Sex Differences in Physiology
    Index


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Biography

Dr. Gretchen Neigh is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine. Dr. Neigh's research uses animal models to provide insight into the role of cerebral vascular and metabolic compromise in the generation of affective and cognitive disorders. Her work focuses on periods of increased plasticity and susceptibility to insults such as adolescence and late life. The work in Dr. Neigh's lab is multidisciplinary and attends to the interplay among the nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems. In addition, her work spans multiple levels of analysis from assessment and manipulation of gene expression, to imaging in rodents, to behavioral analysis. Dr. Neigh has received funding from the National Alliance for the Study of Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, the American Heart Association, the Claude Pepper Center, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the National Institute for Nursing Research, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, and the National Institute of Mental Health. In addition to her research program, Dr. Neigh serves on the Executive Committee of the Organization for the Study of Sex Difference (OSSD) and the editorial boards of Hormones & Behavior and Physiology & Behavior.

Dr. Megan Mitzelfelt has primary research interests in sex hormone regulation of epithelial transport and its role in the sex differences observed in normal physiology and disease. Most currently her research involves understanding the regulation of alveolar epithelial sodium channels by estradiol. Using cell-attached patch clamp and biochemistry, she is investigating the mechanism of estradiol's activation of the epithelial sodium channel in a rat alveolar cell line. In future studies, she will examine how female sex hormones affect alveolar sodium channel activity in vivo using patch clamp analysis of alveolar cells from lung slices and through determination of alveolar fluid clearance in male, female, and ovariectomized rats. Finally, she will examine how estradiol's regulation of these sodium channels contributes to the sex differences observed in cystic fibrosis and influenza through the use of mouse models of these diseases.

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