Weather bureaus around the world have accumulated daily historical records of atmospheric conditions for more than a century to help forecast meteorological conditions three to five days ahead. To gain insight into the impact of possible future climate warming and constrain predictive models for a warm future, climatologists are seeking paleoclimatologic and paleoceanographic records from the most recent intervals in the Quaternary when conditions were demonstrably warmer than they are today.
In the past 2.5 My, Earth climate has oscillated from cold (glacial) to warm (interglacial) intervals. We currently live in a warm interval, the Holocene, during which the climate has remained relatively constant for about 10 ky. Because the Holocene is nearly as long now as the previous interglacial, scientists have projected the possibly imminent onset of another ice age, excluding human intervention. Whether or not this will occur is a question of some significance, and has sparked debate. Finding an analogue to our current status in other recent interglacials offers substantive aid in clarifying the question just mentioned, and others, concerning global climate change over varying geologic time periods.
Andre W. Droxler, Richard Z Poore, and Lloyd H. Burckle vii
Introduction: Unique and Exceptionally Long Interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 11: Window into Earth Warm Future Climate
Andre W. Droxler, Richard B. Alley, William R. Howard, Richard Z Poore, and Lloyd H. Burckle 1
PART I: Uniqueness or Inter-Changeable Ice Ages?
Climate 400,000 Years Ago, a Key to the Future?
Andre Berger and Marie-France Loutre 17
Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 in the Vostok Ice Core: C 0 2 Forcing and Stability of East Antarctica
D. Raynaud, M. E Loutre, C. Ritz, J. Chappellaz, J-M. Barnola, J. Jouzel, V. Y. Lipenkov, J-R. Petit, and F. Vimeux 27
On the Dynamics of the Ice Ages: Stage-11 Paradox, Mid-Brunhes Climate Shift, and 100-ky Cycle
W. H. Berger and G. Wefer 41
40Ar/39Ar Dating of Glacial Termination V and the Duration of Marine Isotopic Stage 11
Daniel B. Karner and Fabrizio Marra 61
PART II: Unexceptionally Warm Ocean Temperatures at High- and Mid-Latitude
Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11): Analog for Holocene and Future Climate?
Jerry McManus, Delia Oppo, James Cullen, and Stephanie Healey 69
Interpreting Glacial-lnterglacial Changes in Ice Volume and Climate From Subarctic Deep Water Foraminiferal 8180
HenningA. Bauch and Helmut Erlenkeuser 87
Quaternary Interglacials and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet
Reed P. Scherer 103
The Mid-Brunhes Transition in ODP Sites 1089 and 1090 (Subantarctic South Atlantic)
David A. Hodell, Sharon L. Kanfoush, Kathryn A. Venz, Christopher D. Charles, and Francisco J. Sierro 113
Uncertainty in Oxygen Isotope Stage 11 Sea-level: An Estimate of - 1 3 ± 2 m From Great Britain
D. Q. Bowen 131
PART III: Carbonate Bloom at Low Latitudes and Carbonate Bust in the Deep Sea
Sea Surface Temperatures in the Western Equatorial Pacific During Marine Isotope Stage 11
David W. Lea, Dorothy K. Pak, and Howard J. Spero 147
A Longer-Lasting and Warmer Interglacial Episode During Isotopic Stage 11: Marine Terrace Evidence in Tropical Western Americas
Luc Ortlieb, Nury Guzman, and Carlos Marquardt 157
Caribbean Carbonate Crash in Pedro Channel at Subthermoclinal Depth During Marine Isotope Stage 11: A Case of Basin-to-Shelf Carbonate Fractionation?
K. E. Zeigler, J. P. Schwartz, A. W. Droxler, M. C. Shearer, and L. Peterson 181
PART IV. Continental Climate Records: Longer and Wetter, not Necessarily Warmer
Continental Records of MIS 11
George Kukla 207
The Continental Record of Stage 11: A Review
Denis-Didier Rousseau 213
High-Resolution MIS 11 Record From the Continental Sedimentary Archive of Lake Baikal, Siberia
Eugene Karabanov, Alexander Prokopenko, Douglas Williams, Galina Khursevich, Mikhail Kuzmin, Elena Bezrukova, and Alexander Gvozdkov 223
The Chinese Loess Perspective on Marine Isotope Stage 11 as an Extreme Interglacial
Natasa J. Vidic, Kenneth L. Verosub, and Michael J. Singer 231
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