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Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces


Series: Geophysical Monograph Series Volume: 127

By: Mark A Donelan (Editor), WM Drennan (Editor), ES Saltzman (Editor), R Wanninkhof (Editor)

American Geophysical Union

Hardback | Jan 2002 | #232711 | ISBN: 0875909868
Availability: Usually dispatched within 5 days Details
NHBS Price: £56.50 $69/€63 approx

About this book

The transfer of gases across the air-water interface has received much attention over the past two decades, particularly in light of increased societal interest in the exchange of greenhouse gases and pollutants between natural water bodies and the atmosphere. Gas transfer at the interface between liquids and gases holds great fascination for a wide range of researchers, from fluid dynamicists to biogeochemists. However, the phenomena of gas transfer, and the problems we face in understanding them, involve daunting issues, including multi-phase flows over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Such complexity is increased by the presence of surface films of both natural and anthropogenic origin, which can modify the physical and chemical nature of the interface. As a result, the challenge of working on gas transfer has stimulated the development of multidisciplinary, collaborative efforts and the development of a variety of innovative experimental and observational techniques.


      Mark A. Donelan, William M. Drennan, Eric S. Saltzman, and Rik Wanninkhof ix

Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Concepts and Issues
      Mark A. Donelan and Rik Wanninkhof 1

Section 1: Effects of Surface Waves and Turbulence on Gas Transfer
Turbulence Generated by Microscale Breaking Waves and Its Influence on Air-Water Gas Transfer
      Muhammad H. K. Siddiqui, Mark R. Loewen, Christine Richardson, William E. Asher, and Andrew T. Jessup 11
On the Surface Kinematics of Microscale Breaking Wind Waves
      William L. Peirson and Michael L. Banner 17
Effect of Microscale Wave Breaking on Air-Water Gas Transfer
      C. J. Zappa, W. E. Asher, A. T. jessup, J. Klinke, and S. R. Long 23
Statistics of Geometric Properties of Breaking Wind Waves Observed in Laboratory
      Guillemette Caulliez 31
Overview of the CoOP Experiments: Physical and Chemical Measurements Parameterizing Air-Sea Heat Exchange
      Erik John Bock, James Bearer Edson, Nelson M. Frew, Tetsu Hara, Horst Haussecker, Bernd Jahne, Wade R. McCillis, Sean P. McKenna, Robert K. Nelson, Uwe Schimpf, and Mete Uz 39
Surface Wave Observations During CoOP Experiments and Their Relation to Air-Sea Gas Transfer
      Tetsu Hara, B. Mete Uz, Hua Wei, James B. Edson, Nelson M. Frew, Wade R. McCillis, Sean P. McKenna, Erik J. Bock, Horst Hau&ecker, and Uwe Schimpf 45
On the Investigations of Statistical Properties of the Micro Turbulence at the Ocean Surface
      Uwe Schimpf, Bernd Jahne, and Horst Hauliecker 51
On the Skewness of the Sea Slope Probability Distribution
      Bertrand Chapron, D. Vandemark, and T. Elfouhaily 59
Directional Distributions and Mean Square Slopes of Surface Waves
      Paul A. Hwang and David W. Wang 65
Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Processes Beneath a Wind-Driven Water Surface
      Wu-Ting Tsai 71
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Free Surface Flow with Carbon-Dioxide Gas Absorption
      Tomoaki Kunugi and Shin-ichi Satake 77
LIF Measurements of Oxygen Concentration Gradients Along Flat and Wavy Air-Water Interfaces
      Philip T. Woodrow, Jr. and Steve R. Duke 83
A Direct Visualization Method of CO2 Gas Transfer at Water Surface Driven by Wind Waves
      Kohsei Takehara and Goji T. Etoh 89
Measurements of Wind-Driven Current Near the Water Surface by the Use of the PTV Method
      Hajime Kato, Hisamichi Nobuoka, and Naoki Ooshima 97
Physics from IR Image Sequences: Quantitative Analysis of Transport Models and Parameters of Air-Sea Gas Transfer
      Horst W. Haussecker, Uwe Schimpf, Christoph S. Garbe, and Bernd Jahne 103
Measuring the Sea Surface Heat Flux and Probability Distribution of Surface Renewal Events
      Christoph S. Garbe, Bernd jahne, and Horst Hauliecker 109
Effects of Counter-Swell on Both the Mean Current and Turbulent Structure Below the Wind-Waves
      Shinjiro Mizuno 115
A Closer Look at Short Waves Generated by Wave Interactions With Adverse Currents
      Steven R. Long and Jochen Klinket 121
Surface Divergence and Air-Water Gas Transfer
      Sean R. McKenna and Wade R. McGillis 129

Section 2: Effects of Buoyancy and Surfactants on Gas Transfer
The Critical Importance of Buoyancy Flux for Gas Flux Across the Air-Water Interface
      Sally Maclntyre, Werner Eugster, and George W. Kling 135
A Model of Air-Sea Gas Exchange Incorporating the Physics of the Turbulent Boundary Layer and the Properties of the Sea Surface
      Alexander Soloviev and Peter Schluessel 141
Air-Lake Interaction and Surface Layer Processes
      C. N. Panin, A. E. Nasonov, and S. C . Sarkisian 147
Spatial Variations in Surface Microlayer Surfactants and Their Role in Modulating Air-Sea Exchange
      Nelson M. Frew, Robert K. Nelson, Wade R. McGillis, James B. Edson, Erik J. Bock, and Tetsu Hara 153
Thermal Profiling of the Sea Surface Skin Layer Using FTIR Measurements
      Jennifer A. Hanafin and Peter J. Minnett 161
An Autonomous Profiler for Near Surface Temperature Measurements
      Brian Ward and Peter J. Minnett 167
Water Column CO2 Measurements During the Gas Ex-98 Expedition
      R. A. Feely, R. Wanninkhof, D. A. Hansell, M. F. Lamb, D. Greeley, and K. Lee 173
Fine Thermohaline Structure and Gas-Exchange in the Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean During GasEx-98
      Alexander Soloviev, Jim Edson, Wade McGillis, Peter Schluessel, and Rik Wanninkhof 181

Section 3: Gas Transfer in Strong Turbulent Flows

A Field Study of Whitecap Coverage and Its Modulations by Energy Containing Surface Waves
The Physical and Practical Implications of a CO2 Gas Transfer Coefficient That Varies as the Cube of the Wind Speed
      Edward C. Monahan 193
Fractional Area Whitecap Coverage and Air-Sea Gas Transfer Velocities Measured During GasEx-98
      William Asher, James Edson, Wade McGillis, Rik Wanninkhof, David T. Ho, and Trina Litchendorf 199
Gas Transfer in Energetic Conditions
      David Kevin Woolf 205
Estimation of Whitecap Coverage Percentage Using Shallow Grazing-Angle Video and FMICW Radar
      Craig L. Stevens, M. J. Smith, and J. A. McGregor 213
ASGAMAGE, the Air-Sea Gas Exchange/MAGE Experiment
      Wiebe Oost and AS AM AGE participants 219
Comparison of the Deliberate Tracer Method and Eddy Covariance Measurements to Determine the Air/Sea Transfer Velocity of C02
      Cor Jacobs, Phil Nightingale, Rob Upstill-Goddard, Jorgen Friis Kjeld, Soren Larsen, and Wiebe Oost 225
Gas Transfer Velocities for 3He in a Lake at High Wind Speeds
      Philippe Jean-Baptiste, Elise Fourre, and Alain Poisson 233
Measurement Uncertainty in Gas Exchange Coefficients
      J. S. Gulliver, B. Erickson, A. J. Zaske, and K. S. Shimon 239
Measurements of Free Surface Turbulence
      Joseph J. Orlins and John S. Gulliver 247
Gas Transfer Across a Zero-Shear Surface: A Local Approach
      Mohamed A. Atmane and Jacques George 255
Atmosphere-Ocean Gas Exchange Due to Bubbles Generated by Wind Wave Breaking
      Roman S. Bortkovskii 261
The Effect of Bubbles on Air-Water Oxygen Transfer in the Breaker Zone
      Shohachi Kakuno, Douglas B. Moog, Tetsuya Tatekawa, Kenji Takemura, and Tatsuya Yamagishi 265
Bubble Size Distributions on the North Atlantic and North Sea
      Gerrit de Leeuw and Leo H. Cohen 271
Measurements of Large Bubbles in Open-Ocean Whitecaps
      Dale Stokes, Grant Deane, Svein Vagle, and David Farmer 279
The Effects of Bubbles on Mass Transfer Across the Breaking Air-Water Interface
      Satoru Komori and Ryuta Misumi 285
LUMINY - An Overview
      C. de Leeuw, C. J. Kunz, C. Caulliez, D. K. Woolf, P. Bowyer, I. Leifer, P. Nightingale, M. Liddicoat, T. 5. Rhee, M. O. Andreae, S. E. Larsen, F. A. Hansen, and 5. Lund 291
Bubbles Outside the Plume During the LUMINY Wind-Wave Experiment
      Gerrit de Leeuw and Ira Leifer 295
Bubble Measurements in Breaking-Wave Generated Bubble Plumes During the LUMINY Wind-Wave Experiment
      Ira Leifer and Gerrit de Leeuw 303
An Experimental Study of Bubble Mediated Gas Exchange for a Single Bubble
      Nobuhito Mori, Masahiro Imamura, and Ryosuke Yamamoto 311
Better Bubble Process Modeling: Improved Bubble Hydrodynamics Parameterization
      Ranjan Patro, Ira Leifer, and Peter Bowyer 315
Development and Testing of an Eddy Accumulator
      W. John Cooper, Mehran Alaee, and Mark Donelan 321

Section 4: Remote Sensing for Large-Scale Gas Transfer
A Multi-Year Time Series of Global Gas Transfer Velocity from theTOPEX Dual Frequency, Normalized Radar Backscatter Algorithm
      David M. Glover, Nelson M. Frew, Scott J . McCue, and Erik J . Bock 325
A Global, High Resolution, Satellite-Based Model of Air-Sea Isoprene Flux
      David J. Erickson III and Jose L. Hernandez 333
Daily Surface Wind Fields Produced by Merged Satellite Data
      Abderrahim Bentamy, Kristina B. Katsaros, William M. Drennan, and Evan B. Forde 343
The Effect of Using Time-Averaged Winds on Regional Air-Sea CO2 Fluxes
      Rik Wanninkhof, Scott C. Doney, Taro Takahashi, and Wade R. McGillis 351

Section 5: Gas Transfer by Aeration
A Dynamic Method to Estimate the Reoxygenation Rate at Hydraulic Structures
      Badre E. Boumansour, Olivier Dufayt, Jean L. Vasel, and Jean M. Hiver 357
Mass Transfer in Bubbly Flows: Influence of Physico-Chemical and Hydrodynamic Conditions
      Cornelia Lang 363
Air-Water Gas Transfer in Uniform Flows With Large Gravel-Bed Roughness
      Douglas B. Moog and Gerhard H. Jirka 371
Large Scale Laboratory Experiments for Water Oxygenation Under Breaking Waves
      V. K. Tsoukala, E. I. Dan HI, and C. I. Moutzouris 377

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