Preface (A.I. Breymeyer). List of Contributors. Section I. MANAGED GRASSLANDS IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE WORLD. 1. The Spatial Differentiation of Grasslands in Europe (A. Dziewulska). Introduction. The distribution of grassland in europe. Proportion between meadows and pastures. Productivity of grassland. Conclusion. References. 2. The Distribution and Management of Grasslands in the British Isles (J.O. Green). Introduction. History of pastoral developments. Modern grassland. Grassland in relation to climate. Livestock enterprises. Age structure of the grassland. Botanical composition. Productivity. Exploitation of grass. References. 3. The Systems of Grassland Management in Spain (P. Montserrat and F. Fillat). Introduction. General aspects. The main grazing systems in Spain at the present time. How to utilize the diversity of Spanish grasslands. Acknowledgements. References. 4. Grasslands in Upland Areas: The Massif Central (France) (P. Loiseau, F.X. de Montard and G. Ricou). Introduction. Intensive grasslands. Extensive grasslands. Conclusions. References. 5. Managed Grasslands in South Africa (P.J. Edwards and N.M. Tainton). Introduction. Pasture regions of South Africa. Main pasture species and their role in livestock production. Establishment procedures. Management procedures. Herbage and animal production. Fodder conservation. Economics and future development. Acknowledgements. References. 6. Managed Grassland in Japan (I. Ito). Climatic and geographic characteristics. Vegetation in Japanese grasslands. Growth, inorganic and organic constituents, and primary productivity of predominant plant species. Soil of the semi-natural grasslands. Soil-plant relationships in semi-natural grassland in northeastern Japan. Land utilization and development of grassland agriculture - An example of the breakdown of ecological balance caused by artificial pasture establishment. Fluctuation of cattle tick density in managed grassland in Japan - An example of the complexity of managed grassland ecosystems. References. 7. Structural and Dynamic Characteristics of Overgrazed Lands of Northern Patagonia, Argentina. (J. Ares et al.). Physiographic characteristics (M. Rostagno). Patterns of vegetation distribution (A.M. Beeskow). Degradation of the landscape (M. Rostagno). Dynamic characteristics of Chubut grasslands (M. Bertiller). Grazing management for sustained yield in Chubut (J. Ares). Appendix. Managerial model to compute primary productivity and estimate adequate stocking rates (J. Ares and M. Bertiller). Acknowledgements. References. Section II. SPECIAL CASES OF THE STRONG HUMAN IMPACT ON GRASSLANDS. 8. Seasonally Flooded Neotropical Savanna Closed by Dikes (L. Bulla, J. Pacheco and G. Morales). Introduction. The natural savanna vegetation. The effect of dikes on vegetation and organic matter balance. The effect of dikes on populations of large herbivores. Impact of modulos on bird communities. The effect of grazing on modulo savannas. Acknowledgements.