I. ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION. 1. Microbial Ecology: Historical Development. 2. Microbial Evolution and Biodiversity. II. POPULATION INTERACTIONS. 3. Interactions among Microbial Populations. 4. Interactions between Microorganisms and Plants. 5. Microbial Interactions with Animals. 6. Microbial Communities and Ecosystems. III. QUANTITATIVE AND HABITAT ECOLOGY. 7. Measurement of Microbial Numbers, Biomass, and Activities. 8. Effects of Abiotic Factors and Environmental Extremes on Microorganisms. 9. Microorganisms in Their Natural Habitats: Air, Water, and Soil Microbiology. IV. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING. 10. Biogeochemical Cycling: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. 11. Biogeochemical Cycling: Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Iron, and Other Elements. V. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MICROBIAL ECOLOGY. 12. Ecological Aspects of Biodeterioration Control: Soil, waste, and Water Management. 13. Microbial Interactions with Xenobiotic and Inorganic Pollutants. 14. Biodegradability Testing and Monitoring the Bioremediation of Xenobiotic Pollutants. 15. Microorganisms in Mineral and Energy Recovery and Fuel and Biomass Production. 16. Ecological Control of Pests and Disease-Causing Populations. Glossary.