Part 1 Vegetation and flora: general overview of biogeography and conservation; research studies - Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina. Part 2 Palaeobotany: non-vascular plants, including fungi, lichens, hepatics and mosses; vascular plants, including ferms, fern allies and gymnosperms - discussions of flowering plant families. Part 3 Man-plant-animal interaction: bird distribution patterns; plants and people in the montane region; human influence and plant uses. Part 4 Altitudinal zonation and methodology: current problems and methods in analyzing montane vegetation. Part 5 Conservation and protection: current problems and future needs in the conservation and management of montane forests.