Parent-offspring conflict has been the subject of controversy and investigation among biologists since the Trivers (1974)-Alexander (1974) debate brought it to the attention of a large audience. This debate focuses on the question of who wins in parent-offspring conflict. Unfortunately, many of these publications are purely theoretical and so provide neither legitimate evidence nor empirical tests with which to decide who wins, how often, under what circumstances, by how much. and with what consequences. These questions can only be answered by empirical, ideally experimental, studies. This monograph reports the results of a series of experiments on European Starlings nesting on the Livingston College Campus of Rutgers University in Piscataway, N.J.
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