Part 1 Introduction, N. Nelson and S. Wright. Part 2 Theoretical progress: participation and power - a transformative feminist research perspective, J. Schrijvers; paradigm shifts and the practice of participatory research and development, R. Chambers; participatory research and participant observation, S. Wright and N. Nelson. Part 3 Participatory research techniques: theatres for development - listening to the community, A. Mavrocordatos and P. Martin; multi-method approach to the study of the homeless, F. Akilu; farmers as analysts, facilitators and decision-makers, P. Shah. Part 4 Shifting power - power negotiations between researcher and community - power hierarchies within communities: who speaks for whom? outsiders represent women pioneers of the forests of Mexico, J. Townsend; power to the people - rethinking community development, D. Curtis; shifting power, sharing power - issues from user group forestry in Nepal, J. Gronow; participatory research on non-European immigration to Italy, V. Maher; empowerment and community care for older people, K. Meethan. Part 5 Shifting power - outside institutions and the local community: local institutions and power - the history and practice of community management of tank irrigation systems in South India, D. Mosse; institutionalizing adaptive planning and local level concerns - looking to the future, J. Pretty and I. Scoones; participatory ideology and practical development - agency control in a fisheries project, Kariba Lake, K. Hussein; non-governmental organizations and participatory development - the concept in theory versus the concept in practice, J. Lane; popular participation in aid-assisted projects - why more in theory than in practice?, R. Eyben and S. Ladbury.