Romanticism in all its expression communicated a vision of the essential interconnectedness and harmony of the universe. The romantic concept of knowledge was decidedly unitary, but, in the period between 1790 and 1840, the special emphasis it placed on observation and research led to an unprecedented accumulation of data, accompanied by a rapid growth in scientific specialization. An example of the tensions created by this development is to be found in the scientists' congresses which attempted a first response to the fragmentation of scientific research. The problem concerning the unitary concept of knowledge in that period, and the new views of the world which were generated are the subject of this book. The articles it contains are all based on original research by an international group of highly specialized scholars. Their research probes a wide range of issues, from the heirs of Naturphilosophie, to the life sciences', and to the debate on Baconian Sciences', as well as examining many aspects of mathematics, physics and chemistry. History of philosophy and history of science scholars will find this book an essential reference work, as well as all those interested in 19th century history in general. Undergraduate and graduate students will also find here angles and topics that have hitherto been largely neglected.
Preface. Introduction. Wechselwirkung in the Life and Other Sciences: a Word, New Claims and a Concept around 1800 ... and much Later; G. H. Muller. Geometry and 'Metaphysics of Space' in Gauss and Riemann; U. Bottazzini. Romanticism versus Enlightenment: Sir Humphrey Davy's Idea of Chemical Philosophy; F. Abbri. Lamarck and the Birth of Biology 1740--1810; G. Barsanti. On the Origin of Romantic Biology and its Further Development at the University of Jena between 1790 and 1850; I. Jahn. 'Nature is an Organized Whole': J.F. Fries's Reformulation of Kant's Philosophy of Organism; F. Gregory. The Anthropological Theory of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach; S. Fabbri Bertoletti. Sommerring, Kant and the Organ of the Soul; L. Marino. Neurology and Biology in the Romantic Age in Germany: Carus, Burdach, Gall, von Baer; S. Poggi. From Romantic Naturphilosophie to a Theory of Scientific Method for the Medical Disciplines; W.R. Woodward, R. Pester. Romanticism and Dutch Scientists; H.A.M. Snelders. The Unity of Teaching and Research; R. Stichweh. Linguistics and Modern Philology in Germany 1800--1840 as 'Scientific' Subjects and as University Disciplines; H.H. Christmann. The Unity of Nature and Mind: Gustav Theodor Fechner's Non-Reductive Materialism; M. Heidelberger.
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