Introduction. Introductory remarks (U. Colombo). Scientific research and the challenge of agriculture in the tropics (G.B. Marini-Bettolo). Tropical ecosystems (E.H. Hartmans). I. Agrochemicals: Production, Distribution and Regulation. The role of industry in the research of agrochemicals (P. Piccardi). Production and trade of pesticides (P. Dubach). Environmentally dangerous products (R. Olembo). Regulations: procedures for authorization and use of agrochemicals in Malaysia and some selected developing countries of Asia (A. Jamil). New lines of research in agrochemicals: the role of industry, national institutions and international agencies (J.R. Plimmer). II. Adverse Effects of Fertilizers and Pesticides. Diffusion of agrochemicals in the tropical environment and in the food chain monitoring and modelling in biotic and abiotic systems (S.E. Jorgensen). Effects of agrochemicals on tropical ecosystems: Soil, water, flora and fauna (F. Korte, I. Scheunert). Effects of pesticides and of nitrate and N-nitrosocompounds on human and animal health in the tropics: Epidemiological and toxicological aspects (J. Moutschen-Dahmen). III. Economic Aspects of the Use of Agrochemicals in Developing Countries. Pesticides: Energy use in chemical agriculture (D. Pimentel). Socio-economic aspects of technological innovation in food production systems (P. Bifani). Comparative analysis, cost-benefit efficiency ratio in the use of agrochemicals in developing countries (S. Ghatak). Increase of productivity of crops: Control of pre- and post-harvest losses (W. Reed). The role of fertilizers in increasing food productivity in developing countries (D.H. Parish). IV. Optimization of the Use of Agrochemicals in Tropical Countries. Pesticides and the protection of the environment and health in the tropics (G.B. Marini-Bettolo). New bioactive products: Growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones and other attractants (R.C. Saxena, Z.R. Khan). Controlled release technologies: Applications in tropical agriculture (R.M. Wilkins). The integration of new technology in pesticide application systems for small scale farmers in the tropics (G.A. Matthews). The role of information and training in the efficient use of fertilizers and pesticides (J.-P. Bassino). V. Alternative Systems to Traditional Agrochemicals. Biotechnologies using dinitrogen fixation as an alternative to traditional agrochemicals (J. Dobereiner). Genetic resistant cultivars less dependent on agrochemicals (G.T. Scarascia Mugnozza). Research on tropical pest control (T.R. Odhiambo). Strategies for a new approach to agriculture in the tropics (M.S. Swaminathan). The sterile insect technique and area-wide insect control or eradication in the tropics (D.A. Lindquist). Biological control and integrated pest control in the tropics - an overview (B. Napompeth). Status of the implementation of integrated pest management in tropical developing countries (S. Barbosa).