Introduction: determinants of motherhood in human and nonhuman primates - a biosocial model, C.R. Pryce. Part 1 Mother-infant behaviour as a life-history strategy: phylogenetic aspects of primate reproduction - the context of advanced maternal care, R.D. Martin; evolution and adaptive significance of hominid maternal behaviour, R. Foley; ecological and social correlates of maternal expenditure on infant growth in haplorhine primates, C. Ross and A. MacLarnon; influence of ecology and energetics on primate mothers and infants, P. Lee and J. Bowman; maternal styles in old world primates - their adaptive significance, M. Gomendio. Part 2 Causes and correlates of mother-infant behaviour: neurochemical changes accompanying the reproductive process - their significance for maternal care in primates and other mammals, B.E. Keverne; prepartum sex steroid hormones and infant-directed behaviour in primiparous marmoset mothers (callithrix jacchus), C.R. Pryce et al; experiential and hormonal correlates of care-giving in rhesus monkeys, S.D. Holman and R.W. Goy; environmental factors and hormones - their significance for maternal behaviour in captive gorillas, N.I. Bahr; sensory and hormonal control of maternal behaviour in rat and human mothers, A.S. Fleming et al; maternal personality, marital quality, social support and infant temperament - their significance for infant-mother attachment in human families, J. Belsky et al; risk factors for child abuse and neglect in human parents - a review of the literature and a single institution experience, D.S. Halperin; postnatal depression in primate mothers - a human problem?, J.L. Cox. Part 3 Consequences of maternal well-being and behaviour for infant development: maternal exposure to stress during pregnancy - its significance for infant behaviour in pigtail macaques (macaca nemestrina), J.M. Worlein and G.P. Sackett; significance of social attachment in primate infants - the infant-caregiver relationship and volition, G.W. Kraemer; failure to thrive in human infants - the significance of maternal well-being, D. Skuse et al.