Part 1 Perspectives in animal cognition: the myth of anthropomorphism, John Andrew Fisher; gendered knowledge? examining influences on scientific and ethological inquiries, Lori Gruen; interpretive cognitive ethology, Hugh Wilder; concept attribution in nonhuman animals - theoretical and methodological problems in ascribing complex mental processes, Colin Allen and Marc Hauser. Part 2 Cognitive and evolutionary explanations: on aims and methods of cognitive ethology, Dale Jamieson and Marc Bekoff; aspects of the cognitive ethology of an injury-feigning bird, the piping plover, Carolyn A. Ristau; tradition in animals - field observations and laboratory analyses, Bennett G. Galef, Jr.; the study of adaptation, Randy Thornhill; the units of behaviour in evolutionary explanations, Mitchell; levels of analysis and the functional significance of helping behaviour, Walter D. Koenig and Ronald L. Mumme. Part 3 Recognition, choice, vigilance and play: the uniquitous concept of recognition with special reference to kin, Andrew R. Blaustein and Richard H. Porter; do animals choose habitats?, Michael L. Rosenzweig; the influence of models on the interpretation of vigilance, Steven L. Lima; is there an evolutionary biology of play?, Alexander Rosenberg; intentionality, social play and definition, Colin Allen and Marc Bekoff. Part 4 Communication and language: communication and expectations -a social process and the cognitive operation it depends upon and influences, W. John Smith; animal communication and social evolution, Michael Philips and Steven N. Austad; animal language - methodological and interpretive issues, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Karen E. Brakke; knowledge acquisition and asymmetry between language comprehension and production - dolphins and apes as general models for animals, Louis M. Herman and Palmer Morrel-Samuels; evolution and psychological unity, Roger Crisp; the mental lives of nonhuman animals, John Dupre; inside the mind of a monkey, Robert Seyfarth and Dorothy Cheney; a bat without qualities?, Kathleen A. Akins; afterword - ethics and the study of animal cognition, Dale Jamieson and Marc Bekoff.