Over the last decade, there has been increasing concern and debate about the conventional approach to the research and planning of rural transport in developing countries. Studies in a variety of disciplines have indicated that roads and motor vehicles, which hitherto have been the central focus of transport models, have only a limited impact on many rural dwellers. Transport analysts have increasingly come to the view that the "highway and car" approach will not, in the foreseeable future, be able to meet many of the transport demands of rural communities in the developing world. Out of this debate has arisen a new approach to the analysis and understanding of rural transport patterns. The new approach questions the exclusive focus of conventional transport policies on improvement to and expansions of the current transport "system", and calls instead for a re-examination of the real needs of rural dwellers. The provision of transport facilities and services, it is argued, should be informed primarily by the results of such a re-examination, rather than by continuing attempts to develop or modify the transport system which is already in place but which is unable to meet many of the needs of rural communities. "Roads Are Not Enough" comprises three sections. The first is a description and analysis of the evolution of transport planning and policy making in developing countries. The second is a description of the findings of four recent "community-level" rural transport surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. The third is an exploration of potential policies and interventions which can be followed in order to promote a more holistic approach to addressing rural transport problems. It is aimed at several target audiences. Its primary appeal will be to senior planners and policy makers in developing country governments, donor agencies and NGOs. It will additionally be of value to those designing rural transport programmes and projects as well as to researchers, both in academia and in consultancy.
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