299 pages, B/w photos, figs, tabs
Conventional methods for designing water systems in industrialized countries are not appropriate in developing countries. Despite this, the use of sophisticated technologies worldwide is widespread, although in many cases it is inappropriate. There is a lack of information for those wishing to learn and apply many of the practices which are suitable for the developing world, and which can be easily operated and maintained; this book is designed to fill that gap. Now available again in print, this book is addressed to planners and engineers responsible for the design of water treatment plants to be built in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In particular, it is intended for small or isolated communities which may need to employ technologies which do not depend on capital-intensive mechanization and instrumentation. Many of the technologies identified in this text minimize the need for support technologies and highly skilled technicians, and some are experimental.
Part 1 Introduction: examples of inappropriate technology; purpose and organization; summary. Part 2 Basic considerations: general design guides for practical water treatment; water quality criteria; choice of source; choice of treatment processes; construction materials and practices - concrete, structural design consideration, alternative construction materials for small plants, valves and gates. Part 3 Pretreatment: plain sedimentation; storage; roughing filtration - vertical flow roughing filters, horizontal flow roughing filters; grit removal; control of microorganisms. Part 4 Chemicals and chemical feeding: the jar test; primary coagulants - alum salts, ferric salts; alkalies for pH control; natural coagulant aids - adsorbents-weighting agents, natural polyelectrolytes; disinfection - gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite compounds, on-site manufacture of disinfectants; chemical feeding - chlorine feeding, solution-feed chlorinators, direct-gas feed chlorinators, solution-type feeders, constant-rate feeders, proportional feeders, saturated solution feeders, dry-chemical feeders, educators. Part 5 Hydraulic rapid mixing: design criteria; rapid mixing devices - hydraulic jump mixers, Parshall flume, Palmer-Bowlus flume, weirs, baffled mixing chambers, hydraulic energy dissipators, turbulent pipe flow mixers; applications of coagulants in open channels; flow-measurement systems in open channels. Part 6 Hydraulic flocculation: design criteria; baffled-channel flocculators; hydraulic jet-action flocculators; gravel bed flocculators; surface contact flocculators. Part 7 Sedimentation: horizontal flow sedimentation - design criteria, inlet arrangement, outlet arrangement, manual sludge removal; inclined plate and tube settling; upflow sedimentation. Part 7 Sedimentation: horizontal flow sedimentation - design criteria, inlet arrangement, outlet arrangement, manual sludge removal; inclined plate and tube settling; upflow sedimentation. Part 8 Filtration: rapid filtration - dual media filters, filter bottom and underdrains, backwashing arrangements, auxiliary-scour wash systems, filter control systems, constant-rate filtration, declining-rate filtration, design and operation of interfilterwashing units, direct filtration, upflow downflow filtration; slow sand filtration - design of slow sand filters, dynamic filtration, information sources on slow sand filtration.(Part contents).
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