Series: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH Bulletins) Volume: 224
The 58 species of Nemesiidae occurring in Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay are described, keyed, illustrated, and diagnosed. Of those 58 species, 39 are new. Acanthogonatus comprises 27 species; Acanthogonatus segne (Simon) is synonymized with A. franki Karsch; A. guttulata (Simon) is synonymized with A. subcalpeianus (Nicolet); Thalerommata venosa Mello-Leitão is synonymized with A. pissii (Simon); A. notatus (Mello-Leitão) is removed from the synonymy of A. patagonicus (Simon); the female previously identified as A. subcalpeianus was misidentified and belongs to a new species, A. confusus; Bolostromus incursus (Chamberlin) is transferred from the Cyrtaucheniidae to Acanthogonatus; 17 new species of Acanthogonatus are described: A. tolhuaca, A. mulchen, A. chilechico, A. quilocura, A. huaquen, A. juncal, A. alegre, A. nahuelbuta, A. hualpen, A. patagallina, A. vilches, A. recinto, A. peniasco, and A. confusus, from Chile, and A. centralis, A. parana, and A. birabeni, from Argentina; the males of A. franki, A. patagonicus, and A. subcalpeianus, and the female of A. notatus are described for first time. Lycinus Thorell (with eight species) is removed from the synonymy of Mygaloides Nicolet, as Mygaloides is an unidentifiable mygalomorph (perhaps a theraphosid); Lycinus epipiptus (Zapfe) is removed from the synonymy of L. gajardoi (Mello-Leitão); five new species of Lycinus, L. quilicura, L. domeyko, L. frayjorge, L. caldera, and L. tofo are described (all from Chile); L. longipes Thorell does not occur in Chile, previous records actually corresponding to specimens of L. caldera and L. epipiptus; the females of L. gajardoi and L. longipes are described for the first time (previously described female of L. gajardoi is actually that of L. epipiptus). Diplothelopsis Tullgren comprises two species, D. bonariensis Mello-Leitão and D. ornata Tullgren; the placement of D. hastata Mello-Leitão in this genus is almost certainly erroneous, and the genus is exclusively Argentinian. A new genus from Chile is described, Chilelopsis, which contains three new species: C. calderoni (the type species), C. serena, and C. puertoviejo. Chilelopsis is hypothesized to be the sister group of Lycinus + Diplothelopsis. A new genus, Flamencopsis, contains only the type species, F. minima (Chile). Chaco Tullgren comprises seven species; six new species are described: C. tucumana, C. sanjuanina, C. tecka, and C. patagonica from Argentina, and C. tigre and C. socos from Chile; the male of C. obscura is described for first time; Hermacha leporina Simon, from Brazil, said by Raven to belong to Chaco, is transferred to Stenoterommata, and Neostothis Vellard (from Brazil) is removed from the synonymy of Chaco; as relimited, Chaco is restricted to Chile and Argentina. Stenoterommata is represented by seven species (other species occur in Brazil); Stenoterommata argentinensis (Schiapelli and Gerschman) and Brachythele argentina Simon are synonymized with S. platense Holmberg; six new species are described: S. iguazu, S. tenuistylum, S. quena, and S. uruguai, from Argentina, S. crassistylum from Argentina and Uruguay, and S. palmar from Argentina and Brazil. Rachias is represented by only one (new) species, R. timbo. Petropolisia Mello-Leitão is removed from the synonymy of Pselligmus and placed in the synonymy of Rachias. The genus Pycnothele is represented by two species; P. modesta (Schiapelli and Gerschman) is removed from the synonymy of the Brazilian P. singularis Mello-Leitão; the females of P. modesta and P. auronitens (Keyserling) are described for first time. Pselligmus conspersus (Walckenaer) is transferred to Rachias. Xenonemesia Goloboff and Spelocteniza Gertsch are transferred to the Microstigmatidae. Neodiplothele Mello-Leitão is transferred to the Sasoninae (Barychelidae). Brachythele keithi Chamberlin is transferred to the genus Linothele (Dipluridae). A cladistic analysis of nemesiid relationships is provided, based on a matrix including all known species of Acanthogonatus, Chaco, and Diplothelopsini, as well as representatives of most nominal Neotropical nemesiid genera, and several non-Neotropical nemesiids and non-nemesiid bipectinates. The 84 terminals in the matrix were scored for 104 characters. The results of the analysis suggest that Nemesiidae as currently delimited is a paraphyletic group but they do not allow a redelimitation at the familial level; the subfamilies Pycnothelinae and Anaminae as delimited by Raven do not appear as monophyletic.
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