Series: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH Bulletins) Volume: 209
The Lysorophia is an order of small, but extremely elongate and tiny-limbed aquatic lepospondyl amphibians known from the Middle Pennsylvanian through the Lower Permian periods, primarily in North America. The order comprises one family, Cocytinidae, with three recognized species: Brachydectes newberryi (= Cocytinus gyrinoides), B. elongatus (= Lysorophus tricarinatus, partim), and Pleuroptyx clavatus. Other named species are considered Lysorophia, incertae sedis. Members of the Lysorophia are distinguished by their fenestrate skulls, anteriorly sloping suspensoria, short mandibles (each bearing a lateral mandibular fenestra), and extensive, well-ossified hyobranchial skeletons. Presacral vertebrae are holospondylous and number between 69 (B. newberryi) and 97 (B. Elongatus). Neural arch halves are sutured at their midlines and to their centra. While closely similar to one another, lysorophoid species are highly derived relative to other Paleozoic amphibians. They are most closely related to microsaurs, judged principally through the morphology of the craniovertebral articulation.
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