Series: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH Bulletins) Volume: 199
The present work is the first attempt to unite all the genera of the Melanolophiini in one paper, and to give a revision of the tribe. The males can be recognized by the following group of characters: antennae pectinate, with the pectinations arising basally on their segments; abdomens are variously modified, usually having the intersegmental membrane between A3 and A4 ventrolaterally with either an invagination on each side, some with a small projecting setal tuft, or a large, very prominent double setal tuft, plus a prominent comblike paired structure of elongate, apically flattened scales on the intersegmental membrane between A7 and A8 (although this may be reduced to a flattened sclerotized band and a few setae); the inner face of the valves is never simple, having a variably developed sacculus, often in the form of a spinose process or an elongate free arm, and/or a swollen, sclerotized, spinose harpe. The females have the signum reduced or absent; otherwise they have to be associated with their males for tribal placement.
The early stages of only a very few species are known; these are characterized in the mature larva by having seta SDX2 in the subdorsal region of the anterior abdominal segments, and with all the crochets of the prolegs being in one group. The Melanolophiini are restricted to the New World, where the species range from southern Alaska to southern South America. A few are known from both the Greater and Lesser Antilles, but the group is not known from Chile. Fifteen genera are recognized; Antiphoides, Arilophia, Minyolophia, Segalenara, and Tesiophora are described as new. All genera are completely described, with the adults and the genitalia of both sexes illustrated; a key to the males is provided. For some genera only brief references are made to the included species, while in others complete generic revisions are presented, with diagnoses of the previously described species and descriptions of new taxa. Included in the latter category are Anavinemina Rindge, Galenara McDunnough, and Vinemina McDunnough, as well as the newly described genera. Fifty-two new species are described. These include Anavinemina acomos, A. brachiata, A. evexa, A. lunaris, A. semicircula, A. striola, A. wellingi, Arilophia rawlinsi, Astalotesia hollandi, Carphoides durango, C. oaxaca, Galenara antilectos, G. bispicula, G. carina, G. engonios, G. ferrugina, G. leberasae, G. phoxe, G. tlaxcala, G. vernonae, Melanolophia anchicaya, M. calimae, M. mima, M. muriensis, M. necopina, M. orthogonia, M. ovata, M. peridoxa, M. plecte, M. pseudoxa, M. sullivani, Pherotesia dystactos, P. garka, P. inhamata, P. obunca, P. pedaria, P. quadra, P. ralla, Minyolophia distincta, M. hadra, M. inermis, M. parilis, M. prolixa, M. yanayacu, Tesiophora aquila, T. cerezal, T. entephros, T. exallos, T. orthe, T. pulla, Vinemina digita, and V. olivaria. These 52 new species bring the number in this tribe to just under 200; almost one-half are placed in Melanolophia. Six new combinations are proposed: Anavinemina rindgei (Beutelspacher), Antiphoides errantaria (McDunnough), A. dentata (Dyar), Minyolophia azenioides (Herbulot), Segalenara phyararia (Dyar), and Tesiophora humidaria (Schaus). There is one new status, as Pherotesia minuisca Rindge is raised to species rank
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