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In this study the rich material of Procervulus praelucidus (OBERGFELL 1957) from Wintershof-West (Eichst#tt, Bavaria) forms the basis for an analysis of variation of the cheek teeth (sample size about 3000) and frontals' appendages (about 120) of one species within the Ruminantia. Comprehensive listings of the specimens utilised, applied biometric methods, and detailed illustration will allow the results gathered here to be used in future comparisons. Criteria for identifying the precise position of molars and premolars within the tooth row are worked out and will often have validity througout the Ruminantia.
Comparisons with all other existing species of Procervulus result in a clear separation between Procervulus praelucidus, Procervulus ginsburgi AZANZA 1993 and Procervulus dichotomus (GERVAIS 1849). Procervulus savignensis (GINSBURG et al. 1985) is made a junior synonym of Procervulus praelucidus. Comparisons with Dremotherium, Amphitragulus, Lagomeryx, Heteroprox, Dicrocerus, Stephanocemas and Euprox make it clear that more abundant material is needed for secure taxonomic determination of cervids. Use of cervids cannot attain a level of biostratigraphical resolution equal to that arising from micromammals.
For the first time a skull of Procervulus dichotomus is described. It belongs to a complete skeleton found at Rauscher#d (Passau, Bavaria). The specific determination is made on the basis of characteristics worked out for the first time in this report.
Finally possible ancestors, the nearest contemporaneous relatives, and possible fossil and recent descendants of Procervulus are discussed.
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