The family Ochyroceratidae is divided into three subfamilies on the base of the respiratory system, the cheliceral teeth, carapace shape and genital organs. In Asia, the Theotiminae include the genera Theotima and Speocera; the genera Psiloderces, Merizocera, Leclercera and Althepus together compose the Psilodercinae. The range of the monogeneric subfamily Ochyroceratinae covers the New World tropics and the Pacific. Fifty-four new species, one new genus and one new subgenus are described: 20 species in the genus Psiloderces, two in Merizocera, five in the new genus Leclercera, 10 in Althepus and 17 in Speocera. The genus Psiloderces is split into nine species groups. The new subgenus Complicicera has been erected to accommodate Theotima javana and Speocera bosmansi. Identification keys have been constructed to the Indo-Pacific ochyroceratid genera and to the Speocera species. Simonicera is synonymized with Speocera. Simonicera chamarro is synonymized with Theotima minutissima. Althepus stellatus is moved to Merizocera, Althepus machadoi to Leclercera, Althepus mulcatus to Psiloderces, Merizocera elastica to Psiloderces, Theotima javana to Speocera (Complicicera), T. microphthalma to Speocera. The total number of known species in the region considered is now 26 for Psiloderces, eight for Merizocera, six for Leclercera, 16 for Althepus, one for Ochyrocera, one for Theotima, 26 for Speocera, two for Complicicera. Nearly half of the species has been collected in caves. The female genital organ is illustrated for the first time for Merizocera picturata, M. crinata, M. stellata, Speocera (Complicicera) javana, S. (Speocera) microphthalma and S. (S.) karkari. The male of S. (C.) javana is described and illustrated for the first time. Emendations are given to the descriptions of Psiloderces longipalpis, Althepus suhartoi, A. lehi, A. tibiatus, Speocera (S.) microphthalma, S. (C.) bosmansi, S. (C.) javana, S. (S.) karkari and S. (S.) krikkeni. Some aspects of zoogeography, cave colonisation and adaptation are discussed. Where possible, ecological data have been provided.
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