INTRODUCTION. 1: The Emergence of Applied Climatology and Climate Impact Assessment. PART I: APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY: THE TOOLS' OF RESEARCH. 2: Ground and Remotely-Sensed Measurements. 3: Statistical Considerations. 4: Climate Models. 5: Atmospheric Resource Management. PART II: CLIMATE AND THE PHYSICAL/BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS. 6: Hydrological processes and water resources. 7: Glaciers. 8: Geomorphic processes and landforms. 9: Soils. 10: Vegetation. 11: Animal responses to climate. PART III: CLIMATE AND THE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT. 12: Comfort, clothing and health. 13: Town planning, architecture and building. 14: Industry and commerce. 15: Transport systems. 16: Agriculture and fisheries. 17: Forestry. 18: Recreation and tourism. 19: Political, social and legal apsects of climate. 20: The energy sector. PART IV THE CHANGING CLIMATIC ENVIRONMENTS. 21: Urban climates and global environmental change. 22: Air pollution. 23: Climate extremes as a hazard to humans. 24: Climate change, history and the future. 25: Overview.