Although a wealth of information about the locomotor patterns and the functional morphology of primates has been compiled, there have been relatively few studies of the ontogenetic aspects of primate locomotion. This specially selected papers in this publication analyze empirical and numerical data on the morphology of the locomotor system as well as on postural and locomotor activities. Some are mainly concern with the basic analysis of musculoskeletal functional anatomy while others deal with locomotor ontogeny, and, in some cases, with its relevance to locomotor phylogeny. The last group of papers is concerned with control of movement and addresses the problem of analyzing the interactions among the mechanically determined, actively controlled movements. The hypotheses proposed are based on the hard facts of morphology, posture, and movements. Providing a detailed analysis of important aspects of primate locomotion, this special issue is of value to primatologists and other researchers who are ultimately seeking a better understanding of locomotion during hominoid evolution.
Functional and developmental morphology: Functional morphological similarities in the locomotor skeleton of miocene catarrhines and paltyrrhines monkeys, M.D. Rose; Locomotor differentiation and different skeletal morphologies in mangabeys (lophocebus and cercocebus), M. Nakatsukasa; Organisation of the epaxial muscles in terrestrial and arboreal primates, H. Kumakura et al; Distribution of muscle fibre types in the thoracic and lumbar epaxial muscles of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), R. Kojima, M. Okada; Muscle fibre composition and innervation ratios of the extensor digitorum and extensor hallucis brevis muscles in the crab-eating macaque ( macaca fascicularis), A. Matsumura, S. Inokuchi; Developmental changes in the fibre composition of elbow, knee, and ankle extensor muscles in cercopithecid monkeys, F.K. Jouffroy, M.F. Medina; Ontogeny of the knee joint in humans, great apes and fossil hominids - pelvic-femoral relationships during postnatal growth in humans, C. Tardieu, H. Preuschoft; Biomechanical reasons for the divergent morphology of the knee joint and the distal epiphyseal suture in hominoids, H. Preuschoft, C. Tardieu. Locomotion of infants and adults: Size influences on primate locomotion and body shape, with special emphasis on the locomotion of 'small mammals', H. Preuschoft et al; Footfall patterns in the early development of the quadrupedal walking of Japanese macaques, Y. Nakano; Centre of gravity of the body during the ontogeny of chimpanzee bidepal walking, T. Kimura; Characteristics of ground reaction forces in normal and chimpanzee-like bidepal walking by humans, Y. Li et al; The trajectory of the point of application of the resultant force of body mass at different walking speeds - statistical analysis of human walking, K. Adachi et al; Mobility of hindlimb joints in Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) as influenced by biarticular musculature, M. Okada et al. Control system: Basic neurophysiology of primate locomotion, S. Mori et al; Utilization of available films and records of primates with central nervous system lesions, J.A. Vilensky; Comparison of locomotor patterns and the cerebellar complex in ateles and macaca, E. Hirasaki, S. Matano; Respiratory, and locomotor coordination during walking in humans, K. Niizeki et al; Application of the minimum jerk model to formation of the trajectory of the centre of mass during multipoint limb movements, M. Suzuki et al; Biomechanical analysis of the development of human bidepal walking by neuro-musculo-skeletal model, N. Yamazaki et al.
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