Language: German, with English summary and identification key
The species of the genus Biatora s. str. are crustose lichens with green algal photobionts and biatorine apothecia. Until recently these species were included in the genera Bacidia, Catillaria, and Lecidea. They share Biatora-type asci and thin-walled spores without a perispore. Characters of prime importance for the delimitation of the genus are a uniform type of conidiogenous hyphae, bacilliform pycnospores, and a typical mode of ascocarp ontogeny.
A number of species recently incorporated in the genus are here excluded. The systematic position of the genus is discussed, but must remain uncertain as long as groups with a similar ascus structure are not investigated in detail. The closest relatives are probably Adelolecia and Phyllopsora. Other genera with Biatora-iype asci, like Bacidia, Cliostomum, Herteliana, Lecania or Toninia are probably not so closely related. Biatora and Micarea seem to be related in some respects. For the time being Biatora is kept in the family Bacidiaceae.
The 17 European species of Biatora are described, and a key in German and English is presented. The most important characters for the identification of species are presence or absence of soralia, colour of the apothecia, spore-size, chemistry, and ecology.
The European Biatora-species grow on bark, mosses or soil, very rarely also on wood. No saxicolous species are known. Essentially, they show either an arctic-alpine or suboceanic distribution. A group of corticolous species is mainly restricted to the areas of Picea abies or Abies alba.
Two new species are described and seven new combination are made. A large number of species are lectotypified. Besides a systematic treatment of the genus Biatora s. str. and its European Species, a checklist of holarctic, non saxicolous species of the former Lecidea sect. Biatora, Catillaria sect. Biatorina, and Bacidia sect. Weitenwebera is presented. This list contains information on the nomenclature, typification, and systematic position of 330 investigated names. A further 83 taxa are listed, of which no type material could be located or borrowed.
Material und Methoden 13
Zur Geschichte der Gattung Biatora 16
Die Gattung 19
Biatora s. str. 34
Bacidia carneoulbida, B. epixonthoides, B. tetramera,
Catillaria sphaeroides 35
Ökologie und Verbreitung 41
Zur systematischen Stellung der Gattung Biatora 45
Beziehungen zu anderen Gattungen 49
Beziehungen zu Arten unsicherer genetischer Zuordnung 54
Die Arten 65
1. Biatora aegrefaciens 65
2. Biatora alborufidula 68
3. Biatora chrysantha 70
4. Biatora cuprea 77
5. Biatora efflorescensis 82
6. Biatora fallax 91
7. Biatora pavopunctata 94
8. Biatora helvola 99
9. Biatora mendax 105
10. Biatora ocelliformis 109
11. Biatora rufidala 115
12. Biatora sphaeroidiza 119
13. Biatora subdaplex 123
14. Biatora subgilva 134
15. Biatora toensbergii 137
16. Biatora vacciniicola 142
17. Biatora vernalis 146
Anhang A: Species exclusae 154
Anhang B: Arten, von denen Typusmaterial nicht lokalisiert oder nicht
ausgeliehen werden konnte 235
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