Introductory essay. Part 1 Scientific procedures and their applications: methods for genetic modification in farm animals and man - present procedures and future opportunities; animal biotechnology in medicine; biotechnology in animal agriculture; the effects of biotechnology on animal welfare. Part 2 The social context: why biotechnology - campaigning against transgenic technology; consensus conferences and technological animals; the inevitability of animal biotechnology? - ethics and the scientific attitude; needs, fears and fantasies. Part 3 Ethical and conceptual issues: intervention, humility and animal integrity; on telos and genetic engineering; intrinsic value and transgenic animals; organs for transplant - animals, moral standing and one view of the ethics of xenotransplantation; making up animals - the view from science fiction; species are dead - long live genes!. Part 4 Policy and regulation: biotechnology policy - four ethical problems and three political solutions; advisory considerations on the scientific basis of the food safety evaluation of transgenic animals; legislation and regulation - a view from the UK; animal patenting - European law and the ethical implications; controls on the care and use of experimental animals. Part 5 Concluding essay: ethics, society and policy - a way forward.