Contributors; Preface; Acknowledgements; The Chiang Mai Declaration; Part I. Introduction: 1. Medicinal plants: policies and priorities O. Akerele; 2. The joint IUCN-WWF plants conservation programme and its interest in medicinal plants O. Hamann; Part II. The Issue of Medicinal Plants: 3. Global importance of medicinal plants N. R. Farnsworth and D. D. Soejarto; 4. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants - the search for new jungle medicines M. J. Plotkin; 5. The reason for ethnobotanical conservation R. E. Schultes; Part III. Science, Industry and Medicinal Plants: 6. Valuing the biodiversity of medicinal plants P. P. Principe; 7. Economic aspects of exploitation of medicinal plants A. Husain; 8. Industry and the conservation of medicinal plants A. Bonati; 9. Information systems and databases for the conservation of medicinal plants H. Synge and V. Heywood; Part IV. Techniques to Conserve Medicinal Plants: 10. Agronomy applied to medicinal plant conservation D. Palevitch; 11. Biotechnology in the production and conservation of medicinal plants H. M. Schumacher; 12. Enhancing the role of protected areas in conserving medicinal plants J. A. McNeely and J. W. Thorsell; 13. Botanic gardens and the conservation of medicinal plants V. Heywood; 14. The role of Chinese botanical gardens in conservation of medicinal plants He Shan-an and Cheng Zhong-ming; Part V. Policies to Conserve Medicinal Plants: 15. Policies and organisation for medicinal plant conservation in Sri Lanka W. J. M. Lokubandara; 16. Experience in the conservation of medicinal plants in Sri Lanka L. de Alwis; 17. The conservation of medicinal plants used in primary health care in Thailand Pricha Desawadi; 18. Medicinal plants and the law C. de Klemm; 19. Let's stop talking to ourselves: the need for public awareness P. S. Wachtel; 20. Germplasm, genetic erosion and the conservation of Indonesian medicinal plants M. A. Rifai and K. Kartawinata; Part VI. Experiences from Programmes to Conserve Medicinal Plants: 21. Medicinal plants in India: approaches to exploitation and conservation S. K. Alok; 22. The Chinese approach to medicinal plants - their utilisation and conservation Xiao Pei-gen; 23. Conservation of medicinal plants in Kenya J. O. Kokwaro; 24. Complexity and conservation of medicinal plants: anthropological cases from Peru and Indonesia C. Padoch, T. C. Jessup, H. Soedjito and K. Kartawinata; 25. Utilisation of indigenous medicinal plants and their conservation in Bangladesh A. S. Islam; 26. Development of a conservation policy on commercially exploited medicinal plants: a case study from Southern Africa A. B. Cunningham; 27. Proposals for international collaboration O. Akerele.