Biofilm reactors are a century-old technology but in recent years the design and operation of biofilm reactors have advanced from simple empirical approaches to sophisticated biotechnology and as such are under constant development. Basic research in the 1990s has increased significantly. Particular progress has been made in fundamental research using new scientific approaches, often transferred from other disciplines. Practical applications in water and wastewater treatment are on the increase as an alternative to activated sludge systems; knowledge of the performance of biofilm reactors and other biofilm systems are improving; the control of the processes in biofilms and the technology of biofilm reactor application are fit for full-scale application; novel processes have been introduced and examples of all these facets of biofilm systems are represented among the 39 papers selected for these proceedings.
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