Advances in methods of wastewater treatment and higher effluent standards are needed to meet the increasing demand for water of high quality. Intensified treatment processes, either to achieve higher efficiency for conventional parameters (e.g. BOD, COD or SS) or to reduce more recently targeted parameters (e.g. N, P, heavy metals, chlorinated organics, etc) are of growing interest. Equally, in developing countries where such high-cost technologies may not be affordable, simpler lower-cost solutions are being sought to tackle local problems. A key element in these developments is the upgrading of existing treatment plants at relatively low cost and/or over short timescales, to produce better quality effluents, more reliably and less expensively. These selected proceedings focus on such issues. The 30 articles in this volume descibe the modelling, design, development, and implementation of physico-chemical and biological methods for upgrading wastewater treatment plants, large and small, industrial and municipal.
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