Part 1 Product innovation and eco-efficiency in theory: introduction, J.M. Cramer and A. Tukker; issues - driving factors, J.M. Cramer and A. Tukker; instruments - the toolbox for product innovation and eco-efficiency, J.M. Cramer and A. Tukker; industries - sector-specific developments, J.M. Cramer and A. Tukker; the challenge, J.M. Cramer and A. Tukker. Part 2 Cases - issues - driving factors; the reduction of waste in metal machining, J. Bongardt; smart cements, J.G.M. de Jong et al; coextruded pipe - an ideal product for recycled PVC pipes and fittings, R.L.J. Pots and P. Benjamin; future energy services, L. Groeneveld; novel protein foods, E.J.C. Paardekooper and J. Bol; Research). Part 3 Instruments - the toolbox for product innovation and eco-efficiency: disassembly analysis of consumer products, W.A. Knight; LCA of the utilization processes of spent sulphuric acid, H. Brunn et al; environmental analysis of wooden furniture, G.R.L. Kamps; application of LCA in environmental management in Statoil, L. Sund; the environmental improvement process at Unilever, C. Dutilh; using LCA in environmental decision-making, B. de Smet; LCA as a decision-support tool for product optimization, H. Brunn et al; possibilities for sustainable development in the chemical industry, T. Dokter; towards eco-efficiency with LCA's prevention principle - an epistemological foundation of LCA using axioms, R. Heijungs; product innovation and public involvement, R.A.P.M. Weterings; Part 4 Industries - sector-specific developments: experiences with the application of secondary materials in the building and construction industry, J. Stuip; eco-design for building materials and building construction, G.P.E. Verlind; "Apparetour" - national pilot-project collecting and reprocessing white and brown goods, J.J.A. Ploos van Amstel; eco-design at Bang & Olufsen, R. Nedermark; eco-efficiency and sustainability at Philips Sound & Vision, A.L.N. Stevels; use of recycled PET for soft-drink bottles, M. Knowles; optimizing packaging - fitness for purpose, together with ecological and economic aspects, must be part of the equation, D.H. Burkle; Paper packaging designed for recycling, G.Jonson.