Small wastewater treatment plants (i.e. those with an average flow of around 1000 m3/d or less) are scattered in their thousands around the world, but their contribution to solving global pollution problems can be overlooked. However, their role is far from insignificant and locally they are often crucial in protecting watercourses and drinking-water sources that are of major importance. Small plants are used to serve villages, factories, tourist establishments, military camps, etc. There is a huge variation in the quantity and quality of influent they must treat, and in many cases continuous supervision of plants is not feasible. These problems make their design and operation far from simple. The papers selected here were presented at a highly successful conference that brought together scientists, engineers and practitioners to discuss the various technologies that may be used. The topics covered include activated sludge and biofilm reactors, constructed wetlands and ponds, infiltration and soil filter systems and issues in the planning, operation and upgrading of small wastewater treatment plants.
Part 1 Planning and selection of small wastewater treatment plants: planning replicable small flow wastewater treatment facilities in developing nations, A. Gaber et al; standardization of small wastewater treatment plants for rapid design and implementation, H.E. Crabtree and M.R. Rowell; evaluation of small wastewater treatment plants in the county of Arhus - Denmark, J. La Cour Jansen et al. Part 2 Septage and sludge: septic tank sludges - accumulation rate and biochemical characteristics, H. Philip et al; dewatering of drying beds - combined biological-chemical sludge behaviour, S. Marklund. Part 3 Infiltration and soil filters: infiltration percolation in France - 10 years experience, F. Brissaud and J. Lesavre; purification efficiency of Danish biological sand filter systems, J. Nielsen et al. Part 4 Constructed wetlands and ponds: planted soil filter - a wastewater treatment system for rural areas, R. Netter; coupling of reed bed filters and ponds - an example in France, A. Lienard et al. Part 5 Activated sludge systems: treatment system of wastewater from rural settlements with batch-activated sludge process, Y. Yuyama et al; batch operated activated sludge plant for production of high effluent quality at small works, B. Chambers; cold climate sequencing batch reactor biological phosphorus removal - results 1991-92, S. Marklund. Part 6 Biofilm system: small wastewater treatment plants based on moving bed biofilm reactors, H. Odegaard et al; study on the denitrification ability of the contact aeration process, H. Nakasone and M. Ozaki. Part 7 Operation and upgrading: retrofitting and operation of small extended aeration plants for advanced treatment - some experiences in Japan, K. Moriyama et al. (Part Contents).
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