Section headings and selected papers: Fundamentals. International Reference Ionosphere - past, present, and future: I. Electron density, D. Bilitza et al. International Reference Ionosphere - past, present, and future: II. Plasma temperatures, ion composition and ion drift, D. Bilitza et al. Indices of geomagnetic variations and ionospheric disturbances, T. L. Gulyaeva. Regional Mapping. Regional ionospheric mapping, B. W. Reinisch et al. Some aspects of COST 238 ( prime ) studies directed towards improved regional maps of foF2 and M( 3000 )F2 over Europe, S. M. Harrison & M. I. Dic;. Comparison of IRI with the ionosphere over China, K. Dai et al. Climatology. Updating the IRI ionospheric model for effects of substorms, P. V. Kishcha et al. On the relationship between ionospheric characteristics and solar indices, N. Ortiz de Adler et al. Plasma Temperatures and Composition. Describing the high-energy tail of the ionospheric electron population, K. Rawer. Comparison of ion composition data with empirical models ( comment ), W. Kohnlein. Lower Ionosphere. Conclusions obtained from an absorption measurement campaign in Spain, H.-U. Widdel. An empirical model of the non-auroral D-region, M. Friedrich & K. M. Tor;ar. Modelling the undisturbed high-latitude E region, S. Kirkwood. Appendices. Author index.