The 33 papers published were selected from those given at the above Proceedings, and are divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides four papers under the heading Up-dating of CIRA 1986. In Chapter 2, entitled Trace Constituents of the Middle and Upper Atmosphere, the papers published go some way toward providing a set of preliminary reference atmospheres of significant trace species of the middle atmosphere and lower thermosphere. These trace species play important roles in controlling the chemistry, radiation balance and circulation patterns of the Earth's stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. The third chapter, The Localized Response of the Lower Thermosphere and Ionosphere at High Latitudes, describes the broad range of recent advances made by theoretical and modelling activities and also reports on experimental investigations using a wide range of methods, ground-based radar, ground-based optical, space-borne in situ and remote sensing. Several papers concentrate on experimental and theoretical studies of the strong interactions between the ionosphere and thermosphere which occur in the auroral oval and polar cap.
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