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Reproductive Adaptation of Rice to Environmental Stress

Series: Developments in Crop Science

By: Y Takeoka, A Al Mamun, T Wada and PB Kaufman


Hardback | Dec 1992 | #85351 | ISBN: 0444986782
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NHBS Price: £139.00 $170/€156 approx

About this book

In rice culture, where seed production is the primary objective, the process of spikelet formation is of major interest. The number and development of spikelets which are differentiated by the panicle directly affect the grain yield. Moreover, the spikelet formation process, especially the stage of differentiation and development of generative cells and the flower-fertilization stage, is the most sensitive to environmental stresses. Subjection to environmental stress at this stage results in severe injuries with consequent reduction in the yield. These stresses include temperature stress, physiological stresses associated with soil, high salinity, flood, drought and fungus infection. The response of the plant differs according to the developmental stage at which it experiences the stress. Thus, an understanding of rice reproductive function and physiology is extremely important to make clear how the morphogenesis of rice spikelets, and especially that of the reproductive organs, takes place, and indeed how it is altered under various stress conditions. Only a very few studies have been undertaken on sexual organogenesis, sex expression and mode of propogation. Though the information in this book is restricted to the rice plant, this knowledge can be applied to other crops and non-crop plants. It has been written not only for researchers and students in agronomy who are concerned with rice studies and production, but also, for those who are concerned with reproductive physiology and morphogenesis. Many scanning electron microscope pictures and other figures are provided for the sake of clarity and as an aid to the understanding of the reader.


1. Introduction 1.1. World Food Demand and Rice Production. 1.2. Rice Production and Yield Decreases due to Environmental Disorders. 1.3. Floral Malformities as a Cause of Spikelet Sterility in Rice. 1.4. What is Plant Morphogenesis? 1.5. Historical Overview of Studies on Rice Spikelet Morphogenesis. 2. Developmental Morphology of the Shoot Apex of Rice Plants 2.1. Comparative Structure of Vegetative and Reproductive Shoot Apices. 2.2. Comparative Cytology of Vegetative and Reproductive Apices. 2.3. Developmental Changes in Form and Structure of the Shoot Apical Meristem. 2.4. Development of Shoot Apical Meristem under Different Cultural Conditions. 3. Rice Spikelet Morphogenesis 3.1. Spikelet Morphogenesis as a Primary Process Contributing to Rice Grain Yield. 3.2. Morphology and Structure of the Rice Panicle and Spikelet. 3.3. Mode of Organo-Histogenesis of the Rice Panicle and Spikelet. 3.4. Fundamental Structure of the Rice Spikelet and Its Developmental Evolution. 3.5. Differentiation and Connection of Vascular Bundles in the Rice Panicle and Spikelet. 3.6. X-ray Micro-analysis of Biogenic Silica in the Rice Spikelet. 4. Concept of Morphogenetic Alteration of Rice Plants due to Environmental Stresses 4.1. What is Environmental Stress? 4.2. Principal Characteristics of Rice Plant Malformities due to Environmental Stresses. 5. Primary Features of the Effect of Environmental Stresses on Rice Spikelet Morphogenesis 5.1. Temperature Stress-Cold and Heat. 5.2. Physiological Types of Stress Associated with the Soil. 5.3. High Salinity. 5.4. Flooding. 5.5. Drought and Water Supply Deficit. 5.6. Fungus Infection. 6. Morphogenesis of Proliferative Rice Spikelets 6.1 Gross Morphology and Types of Proliferative Rice Spikelets. 6.2. Histogenesis of Proliferative Rice Spikelets. 6.3. Environmental Control of Vegetative Proliferation in Rice. 6.4. Chemical Control of Vegetative Proliferation in Rice Spikelets. 6.5. Culture of Rice Propagules. 6.6. Production of Nursling-Clones through the Control of Spikelet Proliferation in Rice. 7. Mode of Action of Plant Growth Regulators and Environmental Stresses 7.1. Mode of Action of Plant Growth Regulators and Nitrogen in Regulation of Spikelet Morphogenesis in Rice Plants. 7.2. Mode of Adaptation of Rice Plants to Environmental Stresses. 8. Concluding Remarks 8.1. Polymorphism and Similarity in Rice Spikelet Malformities. 8.2. Roles of Hypoplasia and Hyperplasia in the Expression of Rice Spikelet Malformities. 8.3. Pistil Hyperplasia as the Principal Response of Rice Plants to Environmental Stress. 8.4.Significance of Pistil Hyperplasia and Vegetative Proliferation from the Viewpoint of Developmental Evolution. 8.5. Strategies for the Protection of the Rice Sexual Organogenesis from the Deleterious Effects of Environmental Stresses. References. Index.

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