This publication contains 18 papers on the planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, and reference atmospheres. The papers survey the latest results, including experimental and numerical modelling and theoretical research of the atmospheres of planets. Presented are inputs in updating the Venus (VIRA) and Mars (Mars-GRAM) reference atmosphere models based on new data obtained over the last decade and the results of reanalysis of the previous experiments. Special attention is now drawn to Mars, which is in a focus of space probe investigations. Numerical modellings, using Mars general circulation models describe dynamical, thermal and seasonal processes, which take place in the Martian atmosphere. The data obtained in these studies are of interest not only for science, but also for engineering, for planning and designing missions. Some scientific instruments on Mars spacecraft and their scientific goals are presented.
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