Preface. I. MINERAL PROPERTIES AND OCCURRENCES. 1. Elements and Minerals. Minerals. The Importance of Minerals. Elements: The Basic Building Blocks. Atoms and Elements. Ions. The Modern Periodic Table. Bonding in Minerals. Origin of the Elements and the Earth. Abundant Elements and Minerals. Major Elements, Minor Elements, and Trace Elements. 2. Crystallization and Classification of Minerals. Crystals and Crystallization. Crystal Imperfections: Defects. Crystal Imperfections: Compositional Zoning. Crystal Imperfections: Twinning. Igneous Minerals. Minerals That Precipitate from Aqueous Solutions. Metamorphic and Diagenetic Minerals. Common Rocks and Minerals. Life Spans of Minerals. The Laws of Thermodynamics. Classification of Minerals. A Classified List of Minerals. 3. Mineral Properties: Hand Specimen Mineralogy. Identification of Minerals. Mineral Appearance. Crystal Shape. Strength and Breaking of Minerals. Density and Specific Gravity. Magnetism of Minerals. Electrical Properties. Reaction to Dilute Hydrochloric Acid. Other Properties. 4. Optical Mineralogy. What Is Light? Polarization of Light and the Polarizing Microscope. The Velocity of Light in Crystals and the Refractive Index. Interaction of Light and Crystals. Other Mineral Characteristics in Thin Sections. 5. Igneous Rocks and Silicate Minerals. Magmas and Igneous Rocks. Composition of Igneous Rocks. Crystallization of Magmas. Silicate Minerals. The Naming of Igneous Rocks. Common Types of Igneous Rock. 6. Sedimentary Minerals and Sedimentary Rocks. Weathering. Transportation, Deposition, and Lithification. Sedimentary Minerals. Common Sedimentary Rocks. Diagenesis. 7. Metamorphic Minerals and Metamorphic Rocks. The Causes of Metamorphism. Metamorphic Textures. Metamorphic Minerals. Metamorphic Facies. Some Common Types of Metamorphic Rock. Metamorphic Reactions. Equilibrium. Metamorphic Phase Diagrams and the Phase Rule. The Thermodynamics of Reactions. 8. Ore Deposits and Economic Minerals. Mineral Use and Profitability. Types of Ore Deposits. Ore Minerals. Gems and Gem Minerals. II. SYMMETRY, CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE. 9. Crystal Morphology and Symmetry. Symmetry. Stereo Diagrams. Forms and Crystal Morphology. Plotting Crystal Faces on a Stereo Diagram. Point Groups and Crystal Systems. 10. Crystallography. Observations in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Unit Cells and Lattices in Two Dimensions. Unit Cells and Lattices in Three Dimensions. Bravais Lattices. Unit Cell Symmetry and Crystal Symmetry. Point Groups and Crystal Systems. Symmetry of Three-Dimensional Crystal Structures. Crystal Habit and Crystal Faces. 11. Units Cells, Points, Lines, and Planes. Unit Cell Parameters and Crystallographic Axes. The Compostion of Unit Cells. Point in Unit Cells. Lines and Directions in Crystals. Planes in Crystals. Crystal Forms and the Miller Index. 12. X-ray Diffraction. What Are X Rays? Interactions of X Rays and Atoms. Interference of X-ray Waves. Diffraction by a Row of Atoms. Planes of Atoms. Intensity of Diffraction. Single Crystal Diffraction. Routine X-ray Analyses. 13. Atomic Structure. The Impact of X-ray Crystallography. Ionic Crystals. Ionic Radii. Coordination Number. Closest Packing. Pauling's Rules. Oxygen and Other Common Elements. Silicate Structures in General. Elemental Substitutes in Silicates. Structures of the Basic Silicate Subclasses. Structures and Chemistry of Nonsilicates. III. MINERAL DESCRIPTIONS. 14. Descriptions of Minerals. Framework Silicates. Sheet Silicates. Chain Silicates. Ring Silicates. Isolated Tetrahedral Silicates. Paired Tetrahedral Silicates. Native Elements. Sulfides. Halides. Oxides. Hydroxides. Carbonates and Nitrates. Borates. Sulfates. Tungstates, Molybdates, and Chromates. Phosphates, Vanadates, and Arsenates. Appendix A. Classified List of Minerals. Appendix B. Mineral Identification Tables. Appendix C. Minerals Separated by Optic System and Sign, and Ordered by Index of Refraction. Appendix D. Minerals Ordered by Birefringence and Interference Colors in Thin Section. Appendix E. Minerals Sorted by Minimum Hardness. Appendix F. Minerals Sorted by Specific Gravity. Mineral Index and List of Mineral Properties. Subject Index.