Our modern economies consume annually about 4.6 billion metric tons of crude oil, a third of which is shipped across the oceans. Along the way, about 3 million metric tons are lost into the environment, primarily through handling in ports, but also leakage at sea. So, the threat of a major ecological disaster is always present, for example the Exxon Valdez, Braer and Sea Empress accidents. In addition to oil leakage from tankers, considerable quantities of oil enter the sea from operational discharges or bunker spills. Fortunately, current international agreements, though not always strictly enforced, have greatly reduced the threat of oil pollution. The oceans are faced with an onslaught from many other sources. The potential for radioactive pollution of the seas, through dumping of nuclear wastes or an accident to a ship carrying radioactive nuclear wastes, has never been absent from the public mind. Recently, people have become more aware of the terrible consequences of a major chemical pollution as well the polluting potential of ships' NOx emissions. The uncontrolled discharge of ballast waters, too, has become an international problem through the transfer, to various parts of the world, of nonindigenous species which may have detrimental effects on our local ecosystems and human societies. This dictionary contains terms covering the following fields and subfields: The shore: morphology and physical description; clean-up at sea and on the shore; fishing activities and marine farming; chemical pollution, containers, the IMDG code and HNS substances; radioactive pollution, dumping and the London Convention; The ship: pollution and casualtyreports; radar, navigation, pilotage, TSS; communications, towing and SAR operations; the sea, wave and weather conditions; people on board ship; Legal: legal aspect of marine pollution. For sample pages, please contact the publisher.
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